Anatomical Terms of Digestive System
the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach
An image made with a horizontal x-ray beam, a sharp flat horizontal line representing the interface between gas density above and fluid density below.
Ampulla of Vater
A hepatopancreatic ampulla, is formed by the union of the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct
An enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of starch into sugars.
Plural of anastomosis
Connection of two structures
Antrum of stomach
The antrum of the stomach (gastric antrum) is a portion before the outlet which is lined by mucosa which does not produce acid
The posterior opening of the alimentary canal
An opening of appendix
A bodily outgrowth or process
The part of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the bend on the right side below the liver
A yellow-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder and passes through the common bile duct into the duodenum where it helps digest fat
A yellowish pigment found in bile
A triangle bounded by the cystic artery, the cystic duct, and the hepatic duct
Cardia of stomach
Part of the stomach which attached to the esophagus
valve between the distal end of the esophagus and the stomach
Common bile duct
A duct that carries bile from the gallbladder and liver into the duodenum (the upper part of the small intestine).
The descending colon is the part of the colon from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon.
Plural of diverticulum
An outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body
The portion of the duodenum which is closest to the stomach
A first section of the small intestine
The inner layer of the pericardium that is in actual contact with the surface of the heart
The epigastric region is the upper central region of the abdomen
A muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach
The junction between the esophagus and the stomach epithelium.
A gallbladder is a hollow organ that sits just beneath the liver and aids mainly in fat digestion and concentrates bile produced by the liver.
The greater omentum is a large fold of parietal peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach.
A valve between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine
A valve between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine
Irregular Z line is the connection where the esophagus meets the stomach.
The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine
Third or last part of the digestive system
Lesser curvature of the stomach
The lesser curvature of the stomach, extending between the cardiac and pyloric orifices, forms the right or posterior border of the stomach
Lipase is a water-soluble enzyme used in breaking down lipids, commonly called fats.
A large, reddish-brown, glandular vertebrate organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity that secretes bile and is active in the formation of certain blood proteins and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
McBurney's point is the name given to the point over the right side of the abdomen that is one-third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the navel
The mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and saliva
The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system
Located around the anus
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles
The pyloric sphincter, or valve, is a strong ring of smooth muscle at the end of the pyloric canal and lets food pass from the stomach to the duodenum
The pharynx is the part of the throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity
The pylorus is the region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestines).
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine.
The series of ridges produced by folding of the wall of an organ
The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus
A circular muscle, that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage.
A muscular, hollow, dilated part of the alimentary canal
The terminal ileum is the most distal part of the small intestine
The tongue is a muscular organ on the floors of the mouth.
Tongues of salmon-colored epithelium
A large part of the colon that attaches the ascending colon to the descending colon by crossing the abdominal cavity.
Hairlike projections that cover the lining of the small intestine
A volvulus is surgical condition that results in a loop of the bowel twisting on itself
A fold, crease, or wrinkle, as in the lining of the stomach
White line of Toldt
A site on lateral to the ascending and descending colon.
Gastrointestinal Disease Terms
Adhesions are fibrous bands that form between tissues and organs, often as a result of injury during surgery
Achalasia is a disorder of esophagus, which affects the ability of the esophagus to move food toward the stomach.
Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant (means an abnormal gene from one parent inherit the disease. One of the parents may often have the disease.) disorder AppendicitisA painful swelling and infection of the appendix.
Ascites is excess fluid in the space between the tissues lining the abdomen and abdominal organs (the peritoneal cavity).
Atresia is a condition in which a body orifice or passage in the body is abnormally closed or absent.
Barrett's esophagus is a disorder in which the lining of the esophagus (the tube that carries food is damaged by stomach acid and changed to a lining similar to that of the stomach.
Biliary atresia, also known as "extrahepatic ductopenia" and "progressive obliterative cholangiopathy" is a congenital (existing at birth) or acquired (disease developed after birth) disease of the liverBleeding in the Digestive TractGastrointestinal hemorrhage (loss of blood)
Carcinoma of ampulla of Vater
A rare malignant tumor arising within 2 cm of the distal end of the common bile duct, where it passes through the wall of the duodenum and ampullary papilla.
A colon twists on its mesentery, resulting in acute, subacute, or chronic colonic obstruction (blocking)
Celiac disease, also known as gluten (a protein found in processed wheat and related grains) intolerance, is a genetic disorder. 13. Celiac disease is a condition that damages the lining of the small intestine and prevents it from absorbing parts of food that are important for staying healthy.
Dilation of the bile ducts
Inflammation of gallbladder
Presence of gallstones in common bile duct
Chronic Hepatitis C
A viral disease that leads to swelling (inflammation) of the liverCirrhosisCirrhosis is scarring of the liver and poor liver function.ColitisColitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large intestine (colon).Colonic polyposisColonic polyps are slow-growing overgrowths of the colonc mucosa that carry a small risk of becoming malignant.
Colorectal, cancer is cancer that starts in the large intestine (colon) or the rectum (end of the colon).
Constipation (also known as costiveness, dyschezia, and dyssynergic defecation) refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
A form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Cyclic vomiting syndrome(CVS) is a condition whose symptoms are recurring attacks of intense nausea, vomiting and sometimes abdominal pain and/or headaches or migraines.
Dermatitis herpetiformis is an extremely itchy rash made of bumps and blisters.
The condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements
Diverticulitis is small, bulging sacs or pouches of the inner lining of the intestine (diverticulosis) that become inflamed or infected.
Small, bulging sacs or pouches of the inner lining of the intestine
An ulcer (sore) in the duodenum (first part of the small intestine) is called a duodenal ulcer.
upset stomach or indigestion (discomfort after eating)
Difficulty in swallowing
E. coli (Escherichia coli)
A germ, or bacterium, that lives in the digestive tracts of humans and animals
Enteric duplication cysts
A rare cyst in gastrointestinal tract, frequently occur in small intestine particularly the ileum, but can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract.
An inflammation of the colon and small intestine.
A process of burping
The loss of regular control of the bowels.
Gas generated in or expelled from the digestive tract, especially the stomach or intestines
Any illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated food.
A crystalline concretion formed within the gallbladder by accretion of bile components.
Gastric ulcer, also known as peptic ulcer, is a localized area of erosion in the stomach lining
Inflammation of lining of stomach.
Severe inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
A condition in which the stomach contents (food or liquid) leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus.
Inflammation of the gum tissue
Vomiting of blood
A disorder that results in too much iron being absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
Coughing up of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs
Painful, and swollen veins in the lower portion of the rectum or anus
Sharp bend between the ascending and the transverse colon
Inflammation of the liver
Hepatitis A is inflammation of the liver from the hepatitis A virus Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is inflammation of the liver from the hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis C is inflammation of the liver from the hepatitis C virus
Hepatitis D is inflammation of the liver from the hepatitis D virus
Hepatitis E is inflammation of the liver from the hepatitis E virus
Hepatojugular reflux (HJR)
An increase in jugular venous pressure when pressure is applied for 30 to 60 seconds over the abdomen, suggestive of right-sided heart failure. Reflux (a backward or return flow)
Enlargement of liver and spleen
A sac formed by the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum).
A hiatus hernia or hiatal hernia is the protrusio of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm
A blockage of the large intestine due to improper muscle movement in the bowel
Abnormally high amounts of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood.
Ileitis is an inflammation of the ileum, a portion of the small intestine.
It is is a type of Crohn's disease affecting the ileum.
A interruption of the normal propulsive (driving force) ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
Inflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal.
Intestinal obstruction is a partial or complete blockage of the bowel that results in the failure of the intestinal contents to pass through.
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a condition in which there are symptoms of intestinal blockage without any physical signs of a blockage.
An intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine has folded into another section of intestine
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or Spastic colon
A functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits in the absence of any detectable organic cause.
It is a common condition which refers to the yellow color of skin and eyes. Normally bilirubin passes through the liver and is excreted as bile through the intestines. Jaundice occurs when bilirubin builds up faster than a liver can break it down and pass it from the body.
Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose.
A subtype of microscopic colitis. It is an inflammation of the colon which is characterized by chronic non-bloody watery diarrhea.
Black, "tarry" feces that are associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
Ménétrier's disease or hyperplastic hypersecretory gastropathy
A disorder in which the gastric mucosal folds (rugae) are enlarged
A sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit.
Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)
A fatty liver, occurring when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver not due to excessive alcohol use.
NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) Ulcer
The second major cause for ulcers is irritation of the stomach arising from regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs.
Nutcracker esophagus is a disorder of the movement of the esophagus.
Inflammation of the pancreas.
Peptic ulcer or Gastric ulcer
A defect in the lining of the stomach or the first part of the small intestine, an area called the duodenum.
An abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.
A rare disorder in which important part of hemoglobin, called heme, is not made properly.
Inflammation of the ileal pouch.
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the bile ducts of the liver.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
A swelling (inflammation), scarring, and destruction of the bile ducts inside and outside of the liver.
An inflammation of the rectum that causes discomfort, bleeding, and occasionally, a discharge of mucus or pus.
A narrowing of the pylorus, the opening from the stomach into the small intestine.
Rapid Gastric Emptying
A condition where ingested foods bypass the stomach too rapidly and enter the small intestine largely undigested.
An inflammation of the esophagus, caused by stomach acid that splashes into the esophagus.
Schatzki ring or Schatzki-Gary ring
A narrowing of the lower part of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
Short bowel syndrome
A condition in which nutrients are not properly absorbed (malabsorption) due to severe intestinal disease or the surgical removal of a large portion of the small intestine.
A sharp bend between the transverse and the descending colon in the left upper quadrant of humans.
An enlargement of the spleen.
A yeast infection of the mucus membrane lining the mouth and tongue.
Tracheoesophageal fistula (Esophageal atresia)
Esophageal atresia is a disorder of the digestive system in which the esophagus does not develop properly.
A type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.
A papilloma (benign tumour of epithelium or warts caused by papilloma virus) composed of slender, finger-like outgrowth occurring in the bladder or large intestine.
Viral Gastroenteritis (stomach flu)
An inflammation of the stomach and intestines from a virus
A rare condition that prevents the small intestines from properly absorbing nutrients.
An inherited disorder in which there is too much copper in the body's tissues.
A condition in which there is increased production of the hormone gastrin.
Treatment Related Terms of Gastrointestinal Diseases
An imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross- sectional pictures of the belly area.
An imaging procedure used to examine the internal organs of the abdomen.
The pylorus is removed and the distal stomach is anastomosed directly to the duodenum
An operation in which the greater curvature of the stomach is connected to the first part of the jejunum in a side-to-side manner
Surgical removal of gallbladder
Anastomosis of the bile duct to the jejunum
Cholescintigraphy is a test done by nuclear medicine physicians to diagnose obstruction of the bile ducts
Surgical removal of colon
The endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
A surgical operation that creates an artificial anus through an opening made in the abdomen from the colon.
A medical instrument consisting of a long tube inserted into the body, used for diagnostic examination and surgical procedures
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
A technique that combines the use of endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the biliary or pancreatic ductal systems.
A diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum.
The fluid wave test or fluid thrill test is a test for ascites (fluid in abdomen).
Gastric emptying scan
A test to diagnose gastroparesis (is a condition that reduces the ability of the stomach to empty its contents, but there is no blockage [obstruction]).
A surgical creation of an anastomosis between the stomach and jejunum.
The surgical resection of the rectosigmoid colon with closure of the rectal stump and formation of an end colostomy.
a diet high in the non-digestible part of plants, which is fiber.
A surgical opening constructed by bringing the end or loop of small intestine (the ileum) out onto the surface of the skin.
An operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions with the aid of a camera.
Foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation.
A clear plastic tube that is inserted through the nose, down the back of the throat, through the esophagus and into the stomach used for feeding and administering drugs and other oral agents.
A gastric feeding tube is a tube inserted through a small incision in the abdomen into the stomach and is used for long-term enteral nutrition.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)
An endoscopic medical procedure in which a tube (PEG tube) is passed into a patient's stomach through the abdominal wall, most commonly to provide a means of feeding when oral intake is not adequate.
After a meal
The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the colon, rectum, and anus.
An examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon with the sigmoidoscope.
Schematic of gastric bypass using a Roux-en-Y (surgical procedure for gastric bypass surgery) anastomosis.
A surgical procedure for gastric bypass.
A procedure in which a doctor looks in your large intestine with the help of sigmoidoscope.
A drug delivery system that is inserted into the rectum.
A partial posterior fundoplication, in which the stomach edge is secured to the esophagus.
Upper GI series
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract radiography.
A operation the head of the pancreas, a portion of the bile duct, the gallbladder and the duodenum is removed.