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A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone.
Types of Bone Fracture
Closed (simple) fractures - The fractures in which the skin is intact.
Comminuted Fracture - A fracture in which the bone has broken into a number of pieces.
Complete fracture - A fracture in which bone fragments separate completely.
Compression fracture - A compression fracture is a collapse of a vertebra.
Impacted fracture - A fracture caused when bone fragments are driven into each other.
Incomplete fracture - A fracture in which the bone fragments are still partially joined
Linear fracture - A fracture that is parallel to the bone's long axis.
Oblique fracture - A fracture that is diagonal to a bone's long axis.
Open (compound) fractures - where fracture hematoma is exposed, and may thus expose bone to contamination.
Spiral fracture - A fracture where at least one part of the bone has been twisted.
Transverse fracture - A fracture that is at a right angle to the bone's long axis
List of Fractures
Tests: Neck /C-Spine
Adson's test/Adson test - Adson's test is used to assess for the presence of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome at the scalene triangle.
Allen's test/ Allen test - Allen's test, also Allen test, is used to test blood supply to the hand, specifically, the patency of the radial and ulnar arteries.
brachial plexus tension test (BPTT) - The brachial plexus tension test (BPTT) is used clinically to test the dynamics of the neural tissues of the upper quadrant.
shoulder abduction test - Shoulder abduction test is an orthopedic test used to help diagnose a cervical nerve root injury or cervical disc herniation.
shoulder depression test - Shoulder Depression Test. Used to evaluate brachial plexus for lesions, plexopathies and radiculopathies.
Spurling test/ cervical/foraminal compression test - Spurling test is a very specific, but not sensitive physical examination maneuver in diagnosing cervical spondylosis or acute cervical (neck) radiculopathy
Valsalva test - The Valsalva test consists of "straining" to increase pressure in the thorax or middle ear, which is transmitted into the inner ear
crossover test - Shoulder exam test to assess the acromioclavicular joint.
drop-arm test - Drop-arm test to assess the rotator cuff tear.
Finkelstein Sign - Finkelstein's test is used to diagnose DeQuervain's tenosynovitis in people who have wrist pain.
Hawkins test - Hawkins test is used to asses shoulder impingement.
Ludington test - Ludington’s test used to assess possible rupture of biceps.
Neer test - Neer test is used to asses shoulder impingement.
shoulder apprehension test (Fowler test/ Jobe relocation test) - The examination is used to assess for shoulder instability.
Speed test (biceps test) - Speed’s test utilized to determine pain and possible subluxation of biceps tendon.
Sulcus sign - The Sulcus sign is an orthopedic evaluation test for glenohumeral instability of the shoulder.
supraspinatus test - This test is used to diagnose pain with tendonitis or partial injury to the supraspinatus tendon in shoulder.
Yergason biceps tendinitis test - The Yergason's test is a screening tool for diagnosing bicipital tendonitis.
Yergason test for subluxing biceps - The Yergason's test is a screening tool for diagnosingsubluxing biceps.
elbow flexion test - The elbow flexion test is used to assess the cubital tunnel syndrome.
golfer elbow test or medial epicondylitis - Golfer elbow test or medial epicondylitis is used to assess the golfer elbow test or medial epicondylitis.
ligamentous instability test (Valgus/Varus stress) - Ligamentous instability test to test the radial collateral ligament.
tennis elbow tests - The tennis elbow test is a very effective means for identifying problems with chronic tendon degeneration of the common extensor tendons at the lateral epicondyle.
lateral epicondylitis test/resistive tennis elbow test/ Cozen's Test/ Passive Tennis Elbow Test - This test is used to diagnose lateral epicondylitis
Allen test - Allen's test, also Allen test, is used to test blood supply to the hand, specifically, the patency of the radial and ulnar arteries.
Phalen test or Phalen’s test - Phalen test or Phalen’s test is used to assess carpal tunnel syndrome.
Tight Retinacular Ligament test - A test is designed to determine the presence of retinacular ligaments or tight distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint capsule.
Tinel sign - Tinel's sign is a way to detect irritated nerves. It is used to assess carpal tunnel syndrome
Adam's sign - A patient with scoliosis (lateral curvature of the spine) when bending over will have no straightening of the curve and give a "positive" result. A straightening of the curve would indicate a "negative" result.
Bragard Sign - If the Lasegue test elicits pain when the patient's leg is passively elevated, then Bragard's test is included as an extra maneuver.
spring test - Spring Test is an orthopedic test used to help diagnose possible facet joint injury in spine.
straight leg raising test/ Lasegue Sign -This test is used to determine whether a patient with low back pain has an underlying herniated disk, mostly located at L5 (fifth lumbar spinal nerve).
Tests: Low back/hips
Bowstring test (cram test or popliteal pressure sign) - Cram’s test is a usual follow up to a positive SLR (straight leg raising). It can help differentiate between dural adhesion and acute disk herniations.
Ely test - Ely's test for assessing rectus femoris muscle flexibility and joint range of motion.
FABER test (FABER = flexion abduction and external rotation) - A test for evidence of pathology in the sacroiliac and/or hip joints.
Gaenslen test - A medical test used to detect musculoskeletal abnormalities and primary-chronic inflammation of the lumbar vertebrae and sacroiliac joint.
Gillet test/ Stork test/Flamingo test - The Gillet Test is used to assess for abnormal movement of the sacroiliac joint.
Hoover's sign test - Hoover's sign test is performed to diagnose leg paresis.
Kernig's sign - Kernig's sign is used to diagnose nerve root impingement.
Lewin snuff test - An orthopedic test to evaluate the cause of low back pain.
Patrick test or Fabere test - Patrick's test or Fabere test is performed by a health care provider to evaluate people who have pain for hip disease or sacroiliitis.
pelvic rock test - Pelvic rock test used to identify pathology of the sacroiliac joint.Prone knee flexion test/ reverse
Lasegue test - A special test for sciatic nerve tension.
side-lying iliac compression test - A test designed to identify the presence of sacroiliac joint dysfunction.
Straight leg raising test/ Lasègue's sign/ Lasègue test - A test done during the physical examination to determine whether a patient with low back pain has an underlying herniated disk, mostly located at L5 (fifth lumbar spinal nerve).
Thomas sign - The Thomas test evaluation flexion contracture of the iliopsoas muscle.
Trendelenburg test - A test which can be carried out as part of a physical examination to determine the competency of the valves in the superficial and deep veins of the legs in patients with varicose veins.
Waddell test - Waddell test is used to evaluate low back pain.
Abduction (Valgus stress) test - The valgus or abduction stress test evaluates the medial collateral ligament.
Adduction (Varus Stress) test - The varus or adduction stress test evaluates the lateral collateral ligament.
anterior cruciate ligament test - To evaluate injury in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in knee joint.
anterior drawer test - The anterior drawer test is used to help diagnose sprain and tears of anterior cruciate ligament.
Apley compression test - The Apley's Compression test is used to assess the menisci of the knee.
Apley distraction test - The Apley distraction test is used to help anterior knee pain.
Apley grind test - The Apley grind test or Apley test is used to evaluate individuals for problems in the meniscus of the knee.
ballotable patella test - The ballotable patella test is used to diagnose effusion of the knee joint.
Bounce Home or Spring test - The bounce home test is used to diagnose tear in meniscus.
Brush or Stroke (Wipe) Test - The brush test is used to diagnose intracapsular effusion/swelling.
Clarke test - Clarkes test is used to diagnose a degenerative condition called Chondromalacia of the very thick hyaline cartilage under the knee cap.
drawer test - A test used by physicians to detect rupture of the cruciate ligaments in the knee.
Lachman test (Ritchie test) - Lachman test is used for examining the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee for patients where there is a suspicion of a torn ACL.
lateral collateral ligament test - lateral collateral ligament (LCL) test is used to diagnose an injury to the ligament on the outer side of the knee
McMurray test - The McMurray test, also known as the McMurray circumduction test is used to evaluate individuals for tears in the meniscus of the knee.
medial collateral ligament test - An MCL test will be done to detect looseness of the ligament.
Ober's test - Ober's test is a test used in physical examination in order to identify contracture of the iliotibial band.
patellar apprehension test - The patellar apprehension test is used to assess the possibility that the patient may have sustained a patellar dislocation which spontaneously reduced.
patellar tap test - The patellar tap is a test for fluid in the knee joint.
patellofemoral grind test - The patellofemoral grind test is used for assessment of patellofemoral syndrome.
pivot-shift test - Pivot-shift test is used during the clinical examination of suspected ACL injury.
posterior cruciate ligament test - To evaluate injury in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in knee joint.
posterior drawer test - The posterior drawer test is used to help diagnose sprain and tears of posterior cruciate ligament.
posterior sag sign (gravity drawer test) - The posterior sag test (also known as the gravity drawer test, drop back sign, or Godfrey's test) is used to assess posterior cruciate ligament.
Quads/ quadriceps active test - Quads/quadriceps active test to diagnose posterior cruciate ligament disruption.
Slocum test - The Slocum test is used to assessment of medial and lateral rotary instabilities of the knee.
Steinman's test - Steinman's test is used to diagnose meniscal tear.
Tibial drop back test - In the tibial drop back test, the examiner compares the prominence of the proximal tibia to the femoralcondyles with the knee flexed to 80°.
Wilson test - The Wilson test is a test used to detect the presence of osteochondritis dissecans in the knee.
Clunk test - Clunk test is used for assessment of the for tib-fib ligament sprain.
anterior drawer sign - The anterior drawer test is used to assess for instability of the ankle.
Pott's compression test/ squeeze test - Pott's compression/squeeze test is used to assess for the presence of a fracture of the lower leg.
Eversion stress test - The eversion stress test evaluates the integrity of the deltoid ligament.
heel and toe walk test - Walking on heels is the most sensitive way to test for foot dorsiflexion weakness, while walking on toes is the best way to test early foot plantar flexion weakness.
heel-thump test (for the ankle) - The heel-thump test is used for diagnosing syndesmotic ankle sprain.
Homans Sign - Homans' sign is a sign of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A positive sign is present when there is pain in the calf or popliteal region with examiner's abrupt dorsiflexion of the patient's foot at the ankle while the knee is flexed to 90 degrees.
Percussion/thump test - This test checks for possible fracture in the ankle joint or in the tibia or fibula.
Talar Tilt - The talar tilt test is used to examine the integrity of the calcaneofibular or the deltoid ligament.
Thompson Test - The Thompson test is used to examine the integrity of the Achilles' tendon.
Gynecology and Obstetrics Anatomical Medical Terms
abortus - A fetus weighing less than 500 g or having completed less than 20 weeks gestational age at the time of expulsion from the uterus, having no chance of survival.
afterbirth - The placenta and fetal membranes expelled from the uterus following childbirth.
amniocentesis - Laboratory analysis of amniotic fluid.
amnion/amniotic sac - The innermost of the membranes enveloping the embryo in utero.
amniotic cavity - The closed sac between the embryo and the amnion, containing the amniotic fluid
amniotic fluid - The nourishing and protecting liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a pregnant woman.
amniotic sac/bag of waters - A sac in which the fetus develops in amniotes
ampulla - A dilated portion of a canal or duct
anteflexion - The normal position of the uterus is bent forward in a position called anteflexion.
antepartum - Before labor or delivery
anti-D gamma globulin - Immunoglobulin for prevention of Rh-sensitization.
Apgar score - Physical assessment of a newborn baby; usually conducted at one minute and five minutes after birth.
areola - The dark pigmented area around the nipple
Bartholin glands - Bartholin's glands are two small, rounded glands on the either side of the vaginal opening that produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina.
basal body temperature (BBT) - A woman’s body temperature at rest; used for detection of ovulation.
blood count - A test used to detect anemia and infection.
breakthrough bleeding - Nonorganic endometrial bleeding during the use of oral contraceptives.
cervical ectropion or eversion - Migration of cells from the lining of the endocervical canal (endocervix) to the outer portion of the cervix (ectocervix).
cervix/cervix uteri - The lower narrow portion that extends into the vagina
clitoris - An organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the vaginal orifice and in front of the urethral meatus.
coitus/copulation - Sexual intercourse
colostrum - The fluid secreted by the breasts during pregnancy and the first days postpartum
conception - The beginning of a new individual that results from fertilization.
corpus - The middle position
corpus luteum - A small, yellow structure that forms in the ovary after an egg has been released.
cortex - The outer layer of an internal organ or body structure.
crowning - The head first seen at the vaginal orifice
delivery - The expulsion of the infant and afterbirth
dilatation - The condition being dilated or stretched beyond normal dimensions.
dilation - The act of dilating or stretching
effacement - The thinning and shortening of the cervix during labor.
embryo - A developing baby during the first trimester.
endometrium - The inner layer that consists of specialized epithelial mucosa
epidural - Type of anesthesia administered through the back during labor. Not the same as a “spinal.”
estimated date of confinement (EDC) - Due date
estradiol - The most potent naturally occurring estrogen.
estrogen - The female sex hormone
fallopian tube/oviducts/uterine tubes - The tubes that extend from the upper end of the uterus to a point near but not attached to each ovary. The fallopian tube serves as a duct to convey the ovum from ovary to the uterus.
fecal occult blood test - Test in which a stool sample is checked for blood that could indicate colon or rectal cancer.
fertilization - Union of ovum and sperm
fetus - A developing baby after the first trimester.
fimbria - Singular of fimbriae
fimbriae - The infundibulum ends in finger-like extensions called fimbriae that catch the ovum when it leaves the ovary.
follicle stimulating hormone - A hormone that stimulates the growth and maturation of mature eggs in the ovary.
fornix - An arch like structure
fraternal twins - Results from the fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells. These develop into two separate embryos.
fundus - The bulging rounded part above the entrance of the fallopian tubes.
gametes/ova - A reproductive cell having the haploid number of chromosomes, especially a sperm or egg capable of fusing with a gamete of the opposite sex to produce a fertilized egg.
genitalia - The reproductive organ
gestation - Pregnancy.
graafian follicles - The ovaries contain thousands of small sacs called graafian follicles.
gravid - Pregnant.
gravida - The number of times the mother has been pregnant
gravida/para (GP) - a shorthand notation for a woman's obstetric history
gynecology - The branch of medicine that involves care of woman’s health, including the reproductive system and breasts.
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) - A hormone excreted during the development of an embryo or fetus.
hymen - A membranous fold of tissue that partly or completely covers the external vaginal orifice.
identical twins - Formed from the fertilization of a single egg cell by a single sperm
implantation - The attachment and embedding of the zygote within the endothelial lining of the uterus.
infundibulum - The funnel shaped opening into the fallopian tube
labia majora - The protection of external genitalia and urethral meatus.
labia minora - The protection of external genitalia and urethral meatus.
lactation - The medical term for yielding of milk by the mammary glands which leads to breastfeeding
lactiferous duct - The duct that carries the milk to the nipple
lactiferous glands - The glands which produce milk after childbirth.
LMP - First day of a woman’s last menstrual period before pregnancy; important to know when calculating the estimated date of confinement (the “due date”).
lochia - The vaginal discharge that takes place during the first week or two after childbirth.
luteal phase - The portion of the menstrual cycle that begins with the formation of the corpus luteum and ends with the start of the menstrual flow, usually 14 days in length.
mammary glands/breasts - Milk producing glands that develop during puberty. They are classified as part of both the reproductive and integumentary systems.
mammography (mammogram) - An X-ray of the breast, used to detect breast cancer.
mans pubis - The rounded fleshy prominence over the pubic symphysis
maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) - A protein substance produced by the liver of the fetus.
meconium - A material that collects in the intestine of a fetus and forms the first stool of a newborn.
menarche - The beginning of the menstrual function that occurs at the onset of the puberty
menopause/climacteric - The normal cessation (stopping) of the monthly flow. It usually occurs after the age of 45.
menorrhea - The monthly menstruation flow
menstrual cycle - The average menstrual cycle consists of 28 days grouped into 4 time periods
menstruatio /menses - The normal periodic discharge of a bloody fluid from the nonpregnant uterus. This is the process of shedding the superficial endometrium lining formed in preparation for possible pregnancy.
mesentery - A membranous fold attaching an organ to the body wall.
mesovarium - A short peritoneal fold connecting the anterior border of the ovary with the posterior layer of the broad ligament of the uterus.
mons pubis - A rounded fleshy protuberance situated over the pubic bones that becomes covered with hair during puberty.
mucus, cervical - Secretion of the cervical mucous glands
multiparous - A woman who has given birth 2 or more times.
myometrium - The muscular middle layer
neonate - Newborn infant during the first 4 weeks after the birth
nipple - The mammary papilla.
nulligravida - A woman who has never been pregnant.
nullipara - A woman who has never borne a viable child.
Obstetrician- Gynecologist - A doctor with special skills, training, and education in women’s health care.
obstetrics - Branch of medicine that involves care of a woman during pregnancy, labor, childbirth and after the baby is born.
operculum - The plug of mucus that fills the cervical canal during pregnancy
orifice - An entrance into, or an outlet from, a body cavity or canal
ova (plural of ovum) -
The female gametes
ovarian ligaments -
A fibrous ligament that connects the ovary to the lateral surface of the uterus.
The ovaries are a pair of small almond-shaped organs located in the lower abdomen, one on either side of the uterus.
The passageway from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct.
Normally each month one ovum matures and is released by the ovaries. This process is called ovulation.
ovum (singular of ova) - Egg
Papanicolaou smear/Pap smear - A screening test used to detect potentially pre-cancerous and cancerous processes in the endocervical canal (transformation zone) of the female reproductive system.
para - The number of viable (>20 wks) births
parity - The state or fact of having borne offspring
parturition/labor/childbirth - The act of giving birth to an offspring
perimenopause - The term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all.
perimetrium - The membranous outer layer
perineum - The perineum is the region between the vaginal orifice and the anus
placenta - The tube, which allows the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between mother and child without allowing maternal blood and fetal blood to mix.
postpartum - After birth or delivery
pregnancy - The condition of having a developing child in the uterus.
prepuce - The foreskin, which surrounds and protects the head of the penis.
presentation - The term used to describe the portion of the fetus that can be touched by the examining finger during labor.
primigravida - A woman during her first pregnancy
primipara - A woman who has borne one child
progesterone - A steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis
proliferative - Growing and increasing in number rapidly
puberty - The process of physical changes by which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilization.
puerperium - The period of 3 to 6 weeks after childbirth until the uterus returns to its normal size.
quickening - The first movement of the fetus felt in the uterus.
sebaceous - Relating to, or resembling fat or sebum; fatty
secretory - Relating to, or promoting secretion;
suspensory - Supporting or suspending
trimester - 3 month each
umbilical cord - The structure that connects the fetus to the placenta.
urethral meatus - The external opening of the urethra
uterine involution - The return of the uterus to its normal size and former condition
uterus - The pear shaped organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining filled with a rich supply of blood vessels.
vagina - A muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body.
vertex presentation - Head-first birth of a baby
vestibular/Bartholin glands - Two glands located slightly posterior and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina
viable - The fetus is viable when it is capable of living outside the mother.
vulva/pudendum - The female external genitalia
zygote - After fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube the fertilized egg, which is now called a zygote.
Disease Related Terms of the Gynecology
abortion - The interruption or termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable
abruptio placentae - An abnormal condition in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall prematurely before the birth of the fetus
amenorrhea - An absence of the monthly flow of menstruation
anovulation - The absence of ovulation.
anteversion - Abnormal tipping, tilting, or turning forward of the entire uterus, including the cervix
Asherman syndrome - Persistent amenorrhea and secondary sterility due to intrauterine adhesions.
breast cancer - A form of carcinoma, is a malignant neoplasm derived from epithelial tissue in the breast
breech presentation - When the buttocks or feet of the fetus are presented first
candidiasis - Any infection caused by a fungus of the genus Candida.
cervicitis - An inflammation of the uterine cervix
Cesarean section - Incision through the abdominal and uterine walls for delivery of a baby.
chlamydia - A common sexually transmitted disease and secondarily causes infertility, especially in female patients.
colporrhexis - Laceration of the vagina
dysmenorrhea - A difficult or painful monthly flow
dyspareunia - Difficult or painful coitus
dystocia - Abnormal or difficult labor.
dysuria - Painful or difficult urination
eclampsia - A more serious form of preeclampsia, is characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma
ectopic - Out of place
ectopic pregnancy/extrauterine pregnancy - A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside the uterus
endocervicitis - An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix
endometriosis - A condition in which endometrial tissue escapes the uterus and becomes implanted outside the uterus on other structures in the pelvic cavity
endometritis - Inflammation of the endometrium.
fibroadenoma - A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium that commonly occurs in breast tissue
fibrocystic breast disease - The presence of the single or multiple cysts in the breasts
fibrocystic disease - The formation of benign but painful cysts in the breasts.
fibromyoma/leiomyoma - Benign tumors, which contain both muscular and fibrous components and generally occur in the myometrium layer of the uterus.
galactocele/galactoma - A cystic enlargement of the mammary gland containing milk
gonorrhea - A sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
herpes - Any inflammatory skin disease caused by a herpesvirus and characterized by the formation of small clusters of vesicles.
hirsutism - Abnormal hairiness
hydatidiform mole - An abnormal pregnancy in which the chorionic villi form a mass of cysts similar in appearance to a cluster of grapes.
hypomenorrhea - A small amount of menstrual flow over the shortened duration at the regular period
induced abortion - An abortion deliberately caused by human action
infertility - A diminished or absent capacity to produce offsprings.
leiomyoma/fibroid - A benign tumor derived from the smooth muscle of the uterus
leukorrhea - A profuse white mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina
mastitis - An inflammation of the breasts
melasma/mass of pregnancy - This is a blotchy, brownish color which occurs over the forehead and malar eminence. It is also common around the mammary areola and in a dark line down the abdomen
menometrorrhagia - An excessive uterine bleeding occurring both during menses and at irregular intervals
menorrhagia - An excessive uterine bleeding occurring during the menses
menorrhea - This term is used interchangeably to mean both the normal flow of menstruation and profuse menstruation.
metrorrhagia - Uterine bleeding which occurs in varying amounts at totally irregular intervals, sometimes lasting long times.
metrorrhea - An abnormal uterine discharge
metrorrhexis - Rupture of the uterus
mittelschmerz - Pain between menstrual period
nabothian cyst - A small, yellowish mass consisting of dilated endocervical gland and appearing at the external vervical orifice.
oligomenorrhea - A markedly reduced menstrual flow and also, abnormally infrequent menstruation or relative amenorrhea
oophoritis - An inflammation of an ovary
ovarian cyst - A collection of fluid or solid material within a sac in the ovary
ovariorrhexis - The rupture of the ovary
Paget disease - An intraductal carcinoma of the beast.
pelvic inflammatory disease/PID - Any inflammation of the female reproductive organs that can lead to infertility, tubal pregnancy, and other serious disorders
pica - A bizarre craving for strange foods or even nonedible materials such as dirt, gravel, paint, or plasters.
placenta previa - The abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower portion of the uterus
polymenorrhea - Abnormally frequent menstruation
precocious puberty - The onset of sexual maturation at an earlier age than usual. Incidentally, the lower limit of normal for girls is 8 and boys is 9.
preeclampsia/toxemia of pregnancy - A complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension (high blood pressure), edema (swelling), and proteinuria
premature infant - Any neonate born before the 37th week of gestation
premenstrual syndrome/PMS - Symptoms occurring within the 2-week period before menstruation such as bloating, edema, headaches, mood swings, and breast discomfort
prolapse of uterus - A falling or sinking down of the uterus until it protrudes through the vaginal opening
proteinuria - An abnormally high level of protein in the urine
pruritus vulvae - A condition of severe itching of the external female genitalia
puerperal infection - puerperal means the period from the end of the third stage of labor until involution of the uterus, which is usually about 3 to 6 weeks. Any infection which afflicts the mother during the this time period.
pyometritis - A purulent inflammation of the uterus
pyosalpinx - An accumulation of the pus in the fallopian tube
retroflexion - An abnormal tipping with the body of the uterus bent forming an angle with the cervix
retroversion - An abnormal tipping of the entire uterus backward, with the cervix pointing forward toward the pubic symphysis
salpingitis - An inflammation of the fallopian tube
spontaneous abortion/miscarriage - Naturally occurring abortion
stillbirth - The birth of the fetus that died before or during delivery
syphilis - A sexually transmitted disease which passes through three different stages and can be latent for years.
teratoma - A neoplasm of the ovary which originates from germ cell or any type of germ cell tumor.
therapeutic abortion - Deliberately induced abortion by physician.
trichomonas - A sexually transmitted disease which is caused by a parasitic protozoa. Trichomonas vagninalis is found in both the female and male tract.
tubal pregnancy - An ectopic pregnancy occurring within the fallopian tube
Turner syndrome - A developmental defect in which the ovaries are either absent or represented only by streaks of ovarian tissue in the broad ligaments. Menstruation does not occur.
vaginal candidiasis - A commonly occurring vaginal yeast infection caused by the yeast Candida albicans
vaginitis/colpitis - An inflammation of the vagina
vaginocele/colpocele - A hernia protruding into the vagina
Treatment Related Terms of Gynecology
amniocentesis - A surgical procedure in which a needle is passed through the abdominal and uterine walls to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid to evaluate fetal health and diagnose certain congenital disorders
amniotomy - Surgical rupture of the fetal membranes to induce or expedite labor.
Apgar score - An evaluation of a newborn infant's physical status by assigning numerical values (0 to 2)
bilateral total abdominal hysterectomy - The surgical removal of the uterus, cervix, and both side fallopian tubes, and ovaries through an incision in the abdomen
bimanual mammograms -
breast augmentation - Mammoplasty to increase breast size
cervicectomy - A surgical removal of the cervix
cesarean delivery/cesarean section/C section - The delivery of the child through an incision in the maternal abdominal and uterine wall
cholesterol test - A blood test performed to check levels of cholesterol, a substance that helps transport fat through the blood.
chromotubation - Dye test
coloscopy - The visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina using a coloscope
colpopexy - The surgical fixation of the vagina to a surrounding structure
colporrhaphy - Suturing the vagina
colposcopy - Examination of the vagina and cervix by using an instrument that provides low magnification.
conization - The removal of the cone of tissue or the partial removal of the cervix
contraception - The prevention of the pregnancy
contraceptive - The measure taken or device used to lessen the likelihood of contraception and pregnancy
dilatation and curettage (D & C) - The dilation (enlargement) of the cervix and removal of material from the surface of the uterus by scraping with curette. (These materials may also be removed with suction instead of by scraping)
electronic fetal monitor - A device that allows observation of the fetal heart rate and the maternal uterine contractions during labor
episiorrhaphy - A sutured repair of an episiotomy
episiotomy - A surgical removal of the perineum and vagina to facilitate delivery and prevent laceration of the tissues.
forceps - A surgical instrument that resembles a pair of tongs and can be used in surgery for grabbing, maneuvering, or removing various things within or from the body.
hymenectomy - The surgical removal of the hymen
hysteropexy - The surgical fixation of a misplaced or abnormally movable uterus
hysterosalpingogram - A imaging test that is used to examine the cavity of the uterus and fallopian tubes.
hysterosalpingography - A radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of radiopaque material
hysteroscope - An endoscope for direct visual examination of the cervical canal and uterine cavity.
hysteroscopy - The direct visual examination of the interior part of the uterus
laceration - A jagged tear of the tissue
laparoscopy - Direct visualization of the peritoneal cavity, ovaries, and the outer surfaces of the fallopian tubes and uterus by using a laparoscope.
ligate - Bind or tie
mammogram - A record of mammography
mammography - A radiographic examination of the breasts
mammoplasty - The surgical repair or restructuring of the breast
mastopexy - A surgery to affix sagging breasts in a more elevated position
oophorectomy/ovariectomy - Surgical removal of the ovary
Papanicolaou test/Pap smear - An exfoliative test for the detection and diagnosis of condition of the cervix and surrounding tissues
pelvimetry - The measurement of the dimensions of the pelvis to determine its capacity to allow passage of the fetus through the birth canal
salpingectomy - The surgical removal of a fallopian tube
total abdominal hysterectomy - The surgical removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries through an incision in the abdomen
tubal ligation - A surgical procedure in which the fallopian tubes are ligated and a section is removed for purposes of sterilization
ultrasound - A radiographic examination of the uterus used during pregnancy to evaluate fetal development
vaginal hysterectomy - The surgical removal of the uterus and cervix through the vagina
vaginoplasty - The surgical repair of the vagina
Ophthalmology Anatomical Terms
accommodation -The process whereby the eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distance
adnexa - The appendages or accessory structures of an organ
anterior chamber - the fluid-filled space inside the eye between the iris and the cornea's innermost surface, the endothelium
anterior segment - the front third of the eye that includes the structures in front of the vitreous humor: the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens
aqueous fluid/humor - A clear, gelatinous fluid similar to plasma
binocular - Adapted to, or referring to, the use of both eyes
canthus - The angle where the lower and upper eyelids meet
choroid - The opaque middle layer of the eyeball
cilia - A protective function to prevent foreign matter from reaching the eyes
ciliary body - The ring-shaped part at the front of the eye that connects the pigmented layer choroid of the eyeball with the iris diaphragm
ciliary muscles - Muscle in eye that controls sight
conjunctiva - The mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid and continues to form a protective covering of the exposed surface of the eyeball
convergence - The simultaneous inward movement of both eyes (toward each other), usually in an effort to maintain single binocular vision as an object approaches (comes closer)
cornea - The transparent anterior portion of the eyeball that provides most of the optical power of the eye
crystalline lens - The transparent lens behind the iris in the eyes
dilate - To widen the opening
emmetropia - The normal relationship between the refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye, which enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina.
epicanthus - A vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose
extraocular - Outside the eyeball
eyeball/globe - A sphere that is about one inch in diameter with walls made up of 3 layers: sclera, choroid, and retina
fovea centralis - A pit located within the macula lutea
humor - Any clear body liquid or semifluid substance
inner canthus - Where the eyelids meet near the nose
intraocular - Within the eyeball
iris - The pigmented muscular layer that surrounds the pupil
lacrimal canaliculi - The ducts at the inner corner of each eye that collect tears and drain them into the lacrimal sac
lacrimal fluid/tears - A liquid that maintains moisture on the anterior surface of the eyeball
lacrimal glands - Glands that secrete lacrimal fluid/tears
lacrimal sac/dacryocyst/tear sac - An enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct
lacrimal/nasolacrimal duct - The passageway that drains lacrimal fluid into the nose
lacrimal/tear apparatus - The structures that produce, store, and remove tears
lacrimation - The normal continuous secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands
macula lutea - A clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina
ocular - Pertains to the eye
opaque - Difficult to see through
optic - Pertaining to the eye or sight
optic disk/blind spot - The region in the eye where the nerve endings of the retina gather to form the optic nerve
optic nerve - The large nerve that sends signals relating to sight from the retina in your eye to your brain
orbit - The bony cavity of the skull that contains and protects the eyeball and its associated muscles, blood vessels, and nerves
posterior chamber - A narrow space behind the peripheral part of the iris of the lens, and in front of the suspensory ligament of the lens and the ciliary processes
pupil - The circular opening in the center of the iris
refraction - The ability of the lens to bend the light rays to help them focus on the retina.
retina - The innermost sensory layer of the eyeball lining the vitreous cavity.
sclera/white of the eye - The fibrous tissue that protects the outer layer that maintains the shape of the eye and protects the delicate inner layers of tissue
tarsus - The platelike framework within the upper and lower eyelids that provide stiffness and shape
vitreous humor /vitreous gel - A clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball
cancer/carcinoma - The uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body
differentiation - The process where normal cells go through physical changes in order to form the different specialized tissues of the body.
hematology - The branch of medicine that specializes in the study and treatment of blood and blood tissues (including bone marrow).
histopathology - The study of cells relating to the disease
oncologist - A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.
oncology - A branch of medicine that deals with cancer
tumor markers - A substance in the body that may indicate the presence of cancer.
Disease Related Terms of Oncology
acute - Sudden or severe
chronic - Long lasting
late effects - Delayed effect of treatment
mortality - Death rate of disease
neutropenia - Reduced levels of white cells in the blood
WHO toxicity grading
List of Cancer Types
acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor
basal cell carcinoma
bile duct cancer, extrahepatic
brain stem glioma
carcinoid tumor, gastrointestinal
central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor
central nervous system embryonal tumor
central nervous system lymphoma, primary
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
chronic myeloproliferative disorders
cutaneous T cell lymphoma
desmoplastic small round cell tumor
ductal carcinoma in situ
extracranial germ cell tumor
extragonadal germ cell tumor
extrahepatic bile duct cancer
extrahepatic germ cell cancer
fibrous histiocytoma of bone
gastric (stomach) cancer
gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor
gastrointestinal stromal tumor
germ cell tumor
gestational trophoblastic tumor
hairy cell leukemia
hepatocellular (liver) cancer
histiocytosis, Langerhans cell
islet cell tumors
liver cancer (primary)
lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)
male breast cancer
malignant fibrous histiocytoma
malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone
Merkel cell carcinoma
metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary
midline tract carcinoma involving NUT gene
multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes
myelodysplastic/ myeloproliferative neoplasms
myeloproliferative disorders, chronic
nasal cavity cancer
nervous system germ cell tumors
non-small cell lung cancer
oral cavity cancer
ovarian epithelial cancer
ovarian germ cell tumor
ovarian low malignant potential tumor
pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors
pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islets cell tumors)
paranasal sinus cancer
plasma cell neoplasm
primary central nervous system lymphoma
renal cell (kidney) cancer
salivary gland cancer
small cell lung cancer
small intestine cancer
soft tissue sarcoma
squamous cell carcinoma
squamous neck cancer with occult primary, metastatic
supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors
t-cell lymphoma, cutaneous
transitional cell cancer
trophoblastic tumor, gestational
uterine cancer, endometrial
Staging and Prognosis
benign - Not spreading, usually a more mild disease.
malignant - Cancerous, where the tumour grows uncontrollably and may spread.
in-situ / invasive -
localized - A tumour restricted to a single site.
metastases - Where the tumour has spread to other parts of the body beyond the primary site.
staging - Staging is where the disease is categorized as to how far it has spread.
prognosis - The expected outcome of a disease
remission - Where the symptoms of cancer are no longer present.
relapse - This is when the disease reoccurs after a period in remission.
refractory - This is where the cancer is resistant to treatment
restaging - This is where the patient is staged again after a period of treatment to access the response to therapy.
Types of Study
Phase I clinical trials - New types of treatment and aim to define a safe dose that will be used for further studies.
Phase II clinical trials - The anti cancer effects of the new treatment, and include very detailed toxicity investigations.
Phase III clinical trials - Compare one or more treatments of proven efficacy. Often patients will be randomized between an established 'standard' treatment and a new 'experimental' treatment - it is not known which is the better treatment.
Ethical approval - All new trials have to first be approved by an independent ethics committee.
Meta Analysis - Analysis is where data from a number of studies are lumped together in order to provide evidence for or against a hypothesis.
Case Control Studies - Studies are where cases are compared to controls, in order to avoid bias the controls are matched for factors such as age and sex.
Cross-sectional Studies - Studies that are carried out at just one point in time.
Longitudinal Studies - Studies where individuals followed over time.
Epidemiology - The study of population.
Randomization - Treatment is randomly allocated to ensure there is no systematic bias in the results.
Treatment Related Terms of Oncology
allogeneic - at are genetically different and therefore incompatible when transplanted
biopsy - The removal of a small section of a tumor to establish a precise diagnosis.
bone marrow transplantation (BMT) - A procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells
central line - A thin plastic line into a vein in the chest used for the delivery of chemotherapy (e.g. Hickman catheter)
chemotherapy - The treatment of cancer with an antineoplastic drug or with a combination of such drugs into a standardized treatment regimen.
complete resection - The tumour has been totally removed during surgery
computed tomography (CT/CAT scan) - A cross-sectional x-ray picture of a "slice" of the body.
curative treatment - Treatment to destroy the cancer.
cytotoxic - Preventing cell division
cytotoxicity - The quality of being toxic to cells
drug resistance - Where tumour cells become resistant to chemotherapy
endoprosthesis - A prosthesis which fits inside the body
external radiotherapy - A radioactivity from a source outside the body.
follow-up - When treatment is complete the periodic visits to the physician are needed to monitor the patient and ensure there has been no recurrence of the disease.
fractions - The radiotherapy dose is divided into a number of smaller doses to reduce the risk of side effects. There is normally one fraction per day.
hyperfractionated radiotherapy - More than one fraction is given per day.
internal radiotherapy (Brachytherapy) - Placing radioactive source within the body in or near to the tumour to kill the cancer cells
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - This is used to determine if the biochemical activity of a tissue responds normally to magnetic forces, tumors may give an abnormal signal.
palliative treatment - Treatment which relieves the symptoms and pain.
peripheral blood stem cell rescue (PBSC)
pre-operative chemotherapy - Drugs given to shrink the tumour before surgery.
prosthesis - An artificial replacement
Radiotherapy/radiation therapy - The use of high energy x-rays and similar rays (such as electrons) to treat disease.
radiotherapy field - The area towards which the radiotherapy was directed.
randomization Treatment - A treatment which is randomly allocated to ensure there is no systematic bias in the results.
surgery - A medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition
total Body Irradiation (TBI) - Radiation to the whole body
ultrasound - The use of sound waves to image the underlying structures of the body.
x-ray - A form of electromagnetic radiation
Internal Medicine Medical Terminology
abscess - A collection of pus in any part of the body that, in most cases, causes swelling and inflammation around it.
achondroplasia - A disorder of bone growth that causes the most common type of dwarfism.
acidosis - A condition in which there is too much acid in the body fluids
acoustic neuroma - A slow-growing tumor of the nerve that connects the ear to the brain.
acute monocytic leukemia (AML) - Leukemia that affects only the white cells that are monocytes
acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) - A form of myeloid leukemia affecting myeloblasts
acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) -Life-threatening disease in which the cells that normally develop into neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, and monocytes become cancerous and rapidly replace normal cells in the bone marrow.
Addison's disease - A disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of their hormones
adenine - A purine base that is a component of DNA and RNA
adenitis - An inflammation of a gland or lymph node.
adenoma - A benign tumor
adenopathy - Large or swollen lymph nodes
adrenal cortex - Cortical part of the adrenal gland
adrenal gland - Endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys.
adrenaline - A hormone produced in high-stress situations
aglutition - Inability to swallow
akathisia - Restless leg syndrome
alcoholism - Alcoholism is when you have signs of physical addiction to alcohol and continues to drink, despite problems with physical health, mental health, and social, family, and job responsibilities.
alkaloid - A group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms
alkalosis - A condition in which the body fluids have excess base
alopecia - Loss of hair from the head or body
Alzheimer's diseaseOne form of dementia that gradually gets worse over time.
amino acid - Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group, and a side-chain that is specific to each amino acid
anaphylactic shock - A widespread and very serious allergic reaction
anaphylaxis - A serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and can be fatal
Anders' diseaseA disease accompanied by painful localized fatty swellings and by various nerve lesions
androgen - The generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of male characteristics
anemia - A condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells.
angina pectoris - Commonly known as angina, is chest pain due to ischemia (a lack of blood, thus a lack of oxygen supply and waste removal) of the heart muscle, generally due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries (the heart's blood vessels).[
angiosarcoma (AS) - An uncommon malignant neoplasms characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled spaces.
ankylosing spondylitis - A long-term disease that causes inflammation of the joints between the spinal bones, and the joints between the spine and pelvis
anomaly - A deviation from normal especially of a bodily part
anorexia nervosa - An eating disorder that makes people lose more weight than is considered healthy for their age and height.
antibiotic - A type of drug resistance where a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic.
antibody - A large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses.
antigen - A substance that evokes the production of one or more antibodies
antihistamine - Antihistamines are medicines that can be used to relieve severe itching and help break this cycle.
antrum - A general term for a cavity or chamber which may have specific meaning in reference to certain organs or sites in the body.
aphasia - An impairment of language ability
aphthous ( Aphthous ulcer) - A canker sore
apnea - A term for suspension of external breathing.
appendicitis - Swelling (inflammation) of the appendix
arthritis - An inflammation of one or more joints
ataxia - A neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements, as in walking
atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) - The most common cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heart beat).
Babinski's reflex - An extension of the great toe, sometimes with fanning of the other toes, in response to stroking of the sole of the foot.
Babinski's sign - An important neurologic examination based upon what the big toe does when the sole of the foot is stimulated.
bacteremia - The presence of bacteria in the blood
bacteriuria - The presence of bacteria in urine not due to contamination from urine sample collection.
bilirubinemia - The presence of excess bilirubin in the blood.
bilirubinuria - An abnormality where conjugated bilirubin is detected in the urine.
biofeedback - The process of becoming aware of various physiological functions using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will
blastomycosis - A rare infection that may develop when people breathe in (inhale) a fungus called Blastomyces dermatitidis, which is found in wood and soil.
botulism - A rare but serious illness caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria.
bradykinesia - Slowness of movement and is one of the cardinal manifestations of Parkinson's disease.
bronchiectasis - Destruction and widening of the large airways.
bronchiolitis - Swelling and mucus buildup in the smallest air passages in the lungs (bronchioles), usually due to a viral infection.
bronchitis - An inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs.
bronchopneumonia - A breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung.
bronchospasm - A bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles.
bruit - The term for the unusual sound that blood makes when it rushes past an obstruction (called turbulent flow) in an artery when the sound is auscultated with the bell portion of a stethoscope.
bulimia - An illness in which a person binges on food or has regular episodes of overeating and feels a loss of control.
bullous - Characterized by blisters or bullae on the skin.
cachexia/ wasting syndrome - Loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness, and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
cafe` au lait spots - These flat patches on the skin can range in color from beige (coffee with a lot of milk) to light brown (coffee with a touch of milk).
calculus - A concretion formed in any part of the body
campylobacter ('twisted bacteria') - A genus of bacteria that are Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic.
candida - A genus of yeasts
candidiasis/thrush - A fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species (all yeasts), of which Candida albicans is the most common
Any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer
carcinoid - A group of symptoms associated with carcinoid tumors -- tumors of the small intestine, colon, appendix, and bronchial tubes in the lungs.
carcinoma/cancer - The uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body
cellulitis - A common skin infection caused by bacteria
cephalalgia - Headache, pain in the region of the head or neck
cheilitis - A medical condition involving inflammation of the lip
cheilosis - A disorder of the lips marked by scaling and fissures at the corners of the mouth; caused by a deficiency of riboflavin
chemotherapy - The treatment of cancer with an antineoplastic drug or with a combination of such drugs into a standardized treatment regimen
chickenpox - A viral infection in which a person develops extremely itchy blisters all over the body.
chlamydia - Sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis
cholecystectomy - The surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystitis - An inflammation of the gallbladder
cholera - An infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea.
chromosome - An organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells.
cirrhosis - Scarring of the liver and poor liver function
claudication/limping - A medical term usually referring to impairment in walking, or pain, discomfort or tiredness in the legs that occurs during walking and is relieved by rest
coccidioidomycosis/ valley fever - A fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or C. posadasii.
colic - A condition in which an otherwise healthy baby cries or displays symptoms of distress (cramping, moaning, etc.) frequently and for extended periods, without any discernible reason.
colitis - Swelling (inflammation) of the large intestine (colon).
condyloma acuminata - Genital warts
cor pulmonale - A failure of the right side of the heart brought on by long-term high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries and right ventricle of the heart.
corpus luteum - Left of the follicle after a woman ovulates.
Crohn's disease - A form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
cryosurgery/ cryotherapy - The application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue.
cushingoid - An adjective used to suggest that a person has the symptoms of Cushing's disease.
Cushing's disease - A condition in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
degenerative arthritis/osteoarthritis - A joint disease caused by cartilage loss in a joint.
dehydration -Dehydration means your body does not have as much water and fluids as it should.
dementia - A loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases
dermatofibroma - A benign skin growths, found especially on the legs.
detoxification - The physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism
The process by which cells become progressively more specialized
digestion - The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components that are more easily absorbed into a blood stream
diphtheria - An acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
diuresis - Urine production, as an aspect of fluid balance
diverticulitis - Small, bulging sacs or pouches of the inner lining of the intestine (diverticulosis) that become inflamed or infected
diverticulum - An outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body.
duodenal ulcer/peptic ulcer - The lining of the stomach or the first part of the small intestine, an area called the duodenum
duodenitis - An inflammation of the duodenum
dyspareunia - Painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes.
dyspepsia - Upset stomach or indigestion
dysphagia - Difficulty in swallowing
dyspnea - Shortness of breath (SOB)
eczema/ atopic dermatitis - A long-term (chronic) skin disorder that involves scaly and itchy rashes.
edema - Swelling caused by fluid in your body's tissues.
effusion - The escape of a fluid from anatomical vessels by rupture or exudation
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) - A group of inherited connective tissue disorders, caused by a defect in the synthesis of collagen
electrocautery - An apparatus for surgical dissection and hemostasis, using heat generated by a high-voltage, high-frequency alternating current passed through an electrode.
electrolytes - Any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive
emboli - plural of embolism
embolism - An obstruction in a blood vessel due to a blood clot or other foreign matter that gets stuck while traveling through the bloodstream.
embolus - A mass, such as an air bubble, detached blood clot, or foreign body, that travels in the bloodstream and lodges in a blood vessel, thus serving to obstruct or occlude such a vessel.
emesis - The act or process of vomiting.
encapsulated - Enclosed by a protective coating or membrane
encephalitis - An inflammation of the brain
encephalopathy - Any degenerative disease of the brain, often associated with toxic conditions
endarterectomySurgical excision of the inner lining of an artery that is clogged with atherosclerotic buildup.
endarteritis - Inflammation of the inner lining of an artery.
endoscopy - An instrument for examining visually the interior of a bodily canal or a hollow organ such as the colon, bladder, or stomach.
epidermal - Of or relating to a cuticle or cuticula
epidermis - The outer, protective, nonvascular layer of the skin of vertebrates, covering the dermis.
epididymis - A long, narrow, convoluted tube, part of the spermatic duct system, that lies on the posterior aspect of each testicle, connecting it to the vas deferens.
epididymitis - Inflammation of the epididymis, one of the common results of gonorrhea.
epigastric - The upper middle region of the abdomen.
epistaxis - A nosebleed.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)/ human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4) - A virus of the herpes family and is one of the most common viruses in humans. It is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis
erythema - Redness of the skin
erythema annulare - A descriptive term for a skin lesion
erythema multiforme - A skin condition of unknown cause
erythema nodosum - An inflammation of the fat cells under the skin
erythematous - Redness of the skin caused by dilatation and congestion of the capillaries, often a sign of inflammation or infection.
eschar - Piece of dead tissue that is cast off from the surface of the skin, particularly after a burn injury, but also seen in gangrene, ulcer, fungal infections, necrotizing spider bite wounds, and exposure to cutaneous anthrax.
euthyroid - The state of having normal thyroid gland function
exanthem - A widespread rash usually occurring in children.
facies - Distinctive facial expressions associated with specific medical conditions.
familial - Tending to occur in more members of a family than expected by chance alone
fasciitis - An inflammation of the fascia
fever - A medical condition with high temperature
folliculitis - An inflammation of one or more hair follicles
foot and mouth disease/ hoof-and-mouth disease - A high fever caused by virus for two or three days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness.
gallbladder - A small organ that aids mainly in fat digestion and concentrates bile produced by the liver
gallstones - Hard, pebble-like deposits that form inside the gallbladder
Gardnerella - The most common bacterial vaginal infections to afflict women of child-bearing age,
gastrointestinal - The structures from the mouth to the anus
Gilbert's diseaseThe most common hereditary cause of increased bilirubin
goiter - A swelling in the thyroid gland
gout - A kind of arthritis that occurs when uric acid builds up in blood and causes joint inflammation
Graves' disease - An autoimmune disease where the thyroid is overactive, producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones
haemophilus - A genus of Gram-negative, pleomorphic, coccobacilli bacteria.
Hashimoto's disease/ chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis - An autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is attacked by a variety of cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes
hemangiosarcoma - A rare, rapidly growing, highly invasive variety of cancer
hematoma - A localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, usually in liquid form within the tissue
heme - blood
Hemoccult test - A qualitative test for hidden blood in the stool, based upon detecting the peroxidase activity of hemoglobin.
hemophilia - A group of bleeding disorders in which it takes a long time for the blood to clot.
hemostasis - A process which causes bleeding to stop
hepatitis - Swelling and inflammation of the liver
herpes - A type of virus
hilar - The scar on a seed, such as a bean, indicating the point of attachment to the funiculus
HIV - Human immunodeficiency virus
Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma - A cancer of lymph tissue found in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and other sites
Homans' sign - A sign of deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
hydrocephalus - A buildup of fluid inside the skull that leads to brain swelling.
hydrophobia - An abnormal fear of water
hypercholesterolemia - A condition characterized by very high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
hyperemia - The increase of blood flow to different tissues in the body
hyperglobulinemia - A condition characterized by abnormally large amounts of globulins in the blood.
hyperhidrosis - A medical condition in which a person sweats excessively and unpredictably.
hyperimmunoglobulinemia - Abnormally high levels of immunoglobulins in the serum.
hyperkalemia - Higher-than-normal levels of potassium in the blood.
hyperkeratosis - Thickening of the stratum corneum, often associated with a qualitative abnormality of the keratin
hyperkinesia/ hyperkinesis - An increase in muscular activity that can result in excessive abnormal movements, excessive normal movements, or a combination of both
hyperplasia - Increase in number of cells
hyperpnea - An increased depth of breathing when required to meet metabolic demand of body tissues
Icteric - Affected by jaundice
Icterus - Jaundice
impetigo - An infectious disease affecting the skin
In vitro - In an artificial environment outside the living organism
infectious - Able to spread from person to person
intertrigo - An inflammation (rash) of the body folds (adjacent areas of skin).
intravenous - Into a vein
invasive - Requiring the entry of a needle
ionizing - The process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or ions
iritis/ uveitis - Swelling and irritation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye.
jaundice - Skin condition turning skin and eyes yellow
jejunoileitis - An inflammation of the jejunum and the ileum
Kaposi's sarcoma - A cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with AIDS.
Kerning's sign - In meningitis, inability to completely extend the leg when sitting or lying with the thigh flexed upon the abdomen; when in dorsal decubitus position, the leg can be easily and completely extended.
klebsiella - A genus of non-motile, Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule
kyphosis - A curving of the spine that causes a bowing or rounding of the back, which leads to a hunchback or slouching posture
lactase - An intestinal enzyme that breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose
lactobacillus - Bacterium producing lactic acid
leukemia - A type of cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal increase of immature white blood cells called "blasts".
leukocytosis - A condition characterized by an elevated number of white cells in the blood.
leukoplakia - Patches on the tongue, in the mouth, or on the inside of the cheek that occur in response to long-term irritation
lupus - A long-term autoimmune disorder that may affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, and other organs
lyme disease - A bacterial infection spread through the bite of the blacklegged tick
lymphadenia - Hypertrophy of lymph nodes.
lymphoma - Any neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue
macrocytosis - The presence of unusually large numbers of macrocytes in the blood
malaise - A vague feeling of discomfort
mammary - Pertaining to the mammary gland, or breast.
mastoid - breast-shaped.
meningitis - An inflammation of the meninges
meningococcal - Bacterium causing meningitis
metaplasia - The transformation of one type of one mature differentiated cell type into another mature differentiated cell type
microcythemia - The presence of abnormally small red blood cells in the blood
microcytic anemia - A generic term for any type of anemia characterized by small red blood cells.
microlithiasis - The formation of minute concretions in an organ.
molluscum contagiosum - A viral skin infection that causes raised, pearl-like papules or nodules on the skin.
mononuclear - Having only one nucleus
morbidity - The rate of incidence of a disease
morbilliform - A rash that looks like measles
mucosa - Moist tissue that lines certain parts of the inside of your body, including your nose, mouth
myelitis - A disease involving inflammation of the spinal cord, which disrupts central nervous system functions linking the brain and limbs
myelocytoma - A malignant tumor formed by the cells of the bone marrow
myringitis - An inflammation of tympanic membrane
myxomatosis - A disease that affects rabbits and is caused by the Myxoma virus
necrosis - The premature death of cells in living tissue
neoplasm - A tumor
nephritis - An inflammation of the nephrons in the kidneys
nephrocarcinoma - Renal cell cancer
neuroma - A growth or tumor of nerve tissue
osteoma - A new piece of bone usually growing on another piece of bone
pallor - A pale color which can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia.
pancreatic - Relating to or involving the pancreas.
pannus - A medical term for an abnormal layer of fibrovascular tissue or granulation tissue.
Pap smear (Papanicolaou smear) - A screening test used to detect potentially pre-cancerous and cancerous processes in the endocervical canal (transformation zone) of the female reproductive system.
papillary - resembling a papilla, or nipple.
papilledema - An optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure.
parathyroid gland - Small endocrine glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND) - Attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing
peripheral - away from the center
photocoagulation - The coagulation (clotting) of tissue using a laser which produces light in the visible green wavelength that is selectively absorbed by hemoglobin
pityriasis rosea - A common type of skin rash seen in young adults.
platelet/ thrombocytes - Small piece of a cell in your blood that helps it to clot
pleuritic - Pertaining to a condition of pleurisy (an inflammation of the membrane that surrounds and protects the lungs)
Plummer's disease/ toxic nodular goiter - A form of toxic goiter that leads to hyperthyroidism
pneumonia - A breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung.
pneumothorax/collapsed lungs - The collection of air in the space around the lungs.
polydysplasia - Abnormal development in several types of tissue
polyphagia - excessive hunger, increased appetite
polypus - Small lump growing inside hollow organs
proctitis - An inflammation of the rectum that causes discomfort, bleeding, and occasionally, a discharge of mucus or pus
progestin - Oral contraceptives are used to prevent pregnancy
prostaglandin - Any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body.
protein - A biochemical compound consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function.
proteinuria - The presence of an excess of serum proteins in the urine
pruritus - An itchiness
pseudomonas - A genus belonging to the family Pseudomonadineae
psoriasis - A medical condition that involving red and dry skin
psoriatic arthritis - A type of arthritis that often occurs with psoriasis of the skin.
psychogenic - Having an emotional or psychologic origin
pterygium - A non-cancerous growth of the clear, thin tissue (conjunctiva) that lays over the white part of the eye (sclera).
purpura - The appearance of red or purple discolorations on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure
pyogenic abscess - A pus-filled area in the liver
radiation - A process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through a medium or space
radiotherapy/radiation therapy - The treatment of cancer and other diseases with ionizing radiation
Reiter's disease/reactive arthritis - An inflammation in joints after an infection in some other part of the body
reticular - netlike
reticulocytopenia/ aplastic crisis - The medical term for an abnormal decrease of reticulocytes in the body.
rheumatic fever - An inflammatory disease that may develop after an infection with Streptococcus bacteria (such as strep throat or scarlet fever).
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) - A long-term disease that leads to inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissues.
rickets - A disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate
RNA virus - A virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
Romberg's sign - Swaying of the body or falling when the eyes are closed while standing with the feet close together; observed in tabes dorsalis.
rubeola/ measles - A very contagious (easily spread) illness caused by a virus.
salmonella - A rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria
sarcoidosis/ sarcoid - A disease in which inflammation occurs in the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, eyes, skin, or other tissues.
sarcoma - A cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin
scarlet fever - A disease caused by infection with the group A Streptococcus bacteria
scleroderma - A connective tissue disease that involves changes in the skin, blood vessels, muscles, and internal organs
sebaceous - of, relating to, or being fatty material
seborrheic - Of, relating to, or affected by seborrhea.
senile - Having or showing the weaknesses or diseases of old age
sepsis - An illness in which the body has a severe response to bacteria or other germs.
serous - Thin and watery, like serum
serpiginous - creeping
serpiginous ulcer - An ulcer extending on one side while healing at the opposite edge, forming an undulating margin.
sickle cell anemia - A disease passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal sickle or crescent shape
sickle cell anemia - A disease passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal sickle or crescent shape
Sjögren's syndrome - A disease that causes dryness in the mouth and eyes.
sphincter - A circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.
spina bifida - A developmental congenital disorder caused by the incomplete closing of the embryonic neural tube.
spleen - The spleen is an organ in the upper far left part of the abdomen, to the left of the stomach, which acts primarily as a blood filter.
splenomegaly - An enlargement of the spleen
spondylitis - An inflammation of the vertebra
spondylosis - Degenerative spinal changes due to osteoarthritis
staphylococcus - A gram-positive bacteria
stenosis - An abnormal narrowing or contraction of a duct or canal.
streptococcus - A gram-positive bacteria
sunstroke - A condition caused by excessive exposure to the sun, marked by high skin temperature, convulsions, and coma.
syncope - A faint; temporary loss of consciousness due to generalized cerebral ischemia
synovial - Pertaining to, consisting of, or secreting synovia, the lubricating fluid of the joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths.
telangiectasia - Permanent dilation of preexisting small blood vessels, creating focal red lesion s.
thrombopenic anemia - A relative decrease of platelets in blood
thyroiditis - Inflammation of the thyroid gland
tinnitus - Hearing ringing, buzzing, or other sounds without an external cause
toxicity - The quality of being poisonous
tremor - An involuntary trembling or quivering.
triad - A collection of three things or symptoms having something in common.
trichomonas - A genus of anaerobic protists that are parasites of vertebrates
trigeminal nerve - The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, also called the fifth nerve, or simply CNV or CN5) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and certain motor functions such as biting, chewing, and swallowing. It is the largest of the cranial nerves
vaccination - The administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate the immune system of an individual to develop adaptive immunity to a disease.
vasomotor - Relating to the nerves and muscles that cause blood vessels to constrict or dilate.
verruca - Common wart
Verstraeten bruit - An abnormal sound heard in auscultation over the lower border of the liver in cachectic (relating to general weakness) patients.
vertigo - A loss of balance or spinning feeling
visceral - Of or relating to the viscera (organs inside the body).
vomiting, vomitus - Emesis/throwing up
von Willebrand's disease (vWD) - The most common hereditary coagulation
whooping cough/pertussis - A highly contagious bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable, violent coughing
xanthoma - A skin condition in which certain fats build up under the surface of the skin.
xerosis - An abnormal dryness of the skin or mucus membranes
zygomycosis - An infection caused by fungi in the orders Mucorales and Entomophthorales
Anatomical Terms of Immunology
Genetic material in a cell lineage that is passed down through the gametes before it is modified by somatic recombination or maturation.
Any of various cells of the immune system that work with T or B cells to initiate a specific immune response
Any form of immunity that is not innate (present at birth) and is obtained during life
antibody dependent , cell-mediated cytotoxicity
The attraction between an antigen and an antibody
The cluster of cells such as bacteria or red blood cells in the presence of an antibody
A group of genes
Allelic exclusion is a process by which only one allele of a gene is expressed while the other allele is silenced.
Being genetically different although belonging to or obtained from the same species.
In immunology, an immunoglobulin allotype is the allele of the antibody chains found in the individual.
alternative complement pathway
The alternative pathway of the complement system is an innate component of the immune system's natural defense against infections, which can operate without antibody participation.
Anaphylatoxins, or anaphylotoxins, are fragments ( C3a, C4a and C5a) that are produced as part of the activation of the complement system.
A disease fighting protein developed by the body in response to the presence of a specific antigen
Substance that stimulates production of antibody
antigen binding site
Specialized ends of antibodies that bind specific antigens.
antigen presenting cell (APC)
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen complexes with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on their surfaces
Antigen processing is a biological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
The specific antigen-binding receptor on T or B lymphocytes; these receptors are transcribed and translated from rearrangements of V genes.
antigen-antibody reaction/immune reaction
The reaction which involves binding antigens to antibodies to form antigen-antibody complexes that render the toxic antigen harmless.
A single antigenic site or epitope on a complex antigenic molecule or particle.
avidity is a term used to describe the combined strength of multiple bond interactions.
B lymphocyte (B cell)
The lymphocytes that make antibodies against antigens perform the role of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and eventually develop into memory B cells after activation by antigen interaction.
A white blood cell with granules that are readily stained by basic dyes, occurring in some blood diseases.
A Bence Jones protein is a monoclonal globulin protein found in the blood or urine.
A blocking antibody is an antibody that does not have a reaction when combined with an antigen, but prevents other antibodies from combining with that antigen.
The flexible tissue found in the interior of bones.
bursa of Fabricius
The bursa of Fabricius plays a central role in the development of the antibody- producing B-lymphocyte.
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion.
cell- mediated cytotoxicity (CMC)
An essential defence against intracellular pathogens
cell-mediated immunity (CMI)
Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies but rather involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
Chemotaxis is the phenomenon in which somatic cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment
class I, II, and III MHC molecules
A biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of antibody from one class to another.
The Classical pathway of activation of the complement system is a group of blood proteins that mediate the specific antibody response.
Clonal deletion is a process by which B cells and T cells are deactivated after they have expressed receptors for self-antigens and before they develop into fully immunocompetent lymphocytes
cluster determinant (CD)
Cluster of antigens with which antibodies react that characterize a cell surface marker.
The joining of segments of DNA to generate essentially new genetic information
A series of serum proteins involved in the mediation of immune reactions
An enzymatic system of serum proteins triggered by the classical and alternative pathways, and resulting in target cell lysis, phagocytosis, opsonization and chemotaxis.
A structure found on erythrocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages that binds C3 fragments.
constant region (C region)
The invariant carboxyl-terminal portion of an antibody molecule.
The reaction between an antibody and an antigen that differs from the immunogen
cytotoxic (cytolytic) T cell
A cell belongs to a sub-group of T lymphocytes
delayed type hypersensitivity/cell mediated immunity
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is a T-cell–mediated defense mechanism against microbes that survive within phagocytes or infect non phagocytic cells
Part of the antigen molecule which binds to an antibody-combining site or to a receptor on T cells
One of a set of genes lying between the V and J genes, which code for the D region of heavy chain or for the beta or delta chain of the T-cell receptor.
Any large structural macromolecule that can be detected by immune reagents and that also is associated with the differentiation of a particular cell type or types
The digestive system has a protective function by destroying bacteria and other invaders that are accidently swallowed or consumed with food
One of the homologous regions that make up an immunoglobulin's heavy and light chains and serve specific immunological functions.
MHC class II molecules found on B cells and antigen-presenting cells of humans.
Antibodies which enhance the survival of a graft or of a tumor.
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
An assay in which an enzyme is linked to an antibody and a colored substrate is used to measure the activity of bound enzyme and, hence, the amount of bound antibody.
White blood cells that are one of the immune system components responsible for fighting multicellular parasites and certain infections
eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A)
A substrate released from mast cells during anaphylaxis which attracts eosinophils.
An alternative term for antigenic determinant.
In a precipitin reaction, the region in which the concentration of antigen and antibody leads to maximal precipitation.
The region of DNA coding for a protein or a segment of a protein.
A fragment of an antibody containing two antigen-binding sites generated by cleavage of the antibody molecule with the enzyme pepsin which cuts at the hinge region C-terminally to the inter-H-chain disulphide bond.
Fragment of antibody containing the antigen-binding site, generated by cleavage of the antibody with the enzyme papain, which cuts at the hinge region N-terminally to the inter-H-chain disulphide bond and generates two Fab fragments from one antibody molecule.
Fragment of antibody without antigen-binding sites, generated by cleavage with papain; the Fc fragment contains the C-terminal domains of the heavy immunoglobulin chains.
Fc receptor (FcR)
A receptor on a cell surface with specific binding affinity for the Fc portion of an antibody molecule. Fc receptors are found on many types of cells.
An antibody coupled with a fluorescent dye, used with a fluorescence microscope to detect antigen on cells, tissues, or microorganisms.
The genotype is the genetic makeup of a cell, an organism, or an individual.
graft versus host reaction (GVH)
The pathologic consequences of a response initiated by transplanted immunocompetent T lymphocytes into an allogeneic, immunologically incompetent host. The host is unable to reject the grafted T cells and becomes their target.
The major histocompatibility complex situated on chromosome 17 of the mouse; contains subregions K, I and D.
A particular combination of closely linked genes on a chromosome inherited from one patient.
A hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein
heavy chain (H chain)
The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody (immunoglobulin).
helper T cell
The cells which secretes substances that stimulates the production of antibodies by B cell
Removing and destroying worn-out red blood cells
A cross-reacting antigen that appears in widely ranging species such as humans and bacteria.
Genetic process of passing on characteristics
A flexible, open segment of an antibody molecule that allows bending of the molecule.
The ability of tissues to get along
The large macrophages found in loose connective tissue
See 'Major histocompatibility complex'.
Any immune reaction that can be transferred with immune serum is termed humoral immunity
State of reactivity to antigen that is greater than normal for the antigenic challenge
Portions of the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains that are highly variable in amino acid sequence from one immunoglobulin molecule to another, and that, together, constitute the antigen-binding site of an antibody molecule.
Immune response-associated proteins, found on B cells and antigen-presenting cells of mice; an old term now replaced with MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II molecules.
A specimen identified as belonging to a specific taxon but collected from other than the type locality
Hypersensitivity tissue reaction occurring within minutes after the interaction of antigen and antibody.
The binding of antibody-antigen-complement complexes to complement receptors found on red blood cells.
Antigen bound to antibody.
Substances that control the expression of the immune response.
immune response (Ir) genes
A gene controlling an immune response to a particular antigen.
A system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease
The state of being resistant or not susceptible to a specific disease
A substance capable of inducing an immune response.
A general term for all antibody molecules.
immunoglobulin A (IgA)
The major antibody in the mucous membrane lining of the intestine
immunoglobulin D (IgD)
The immunoglobulin is found in small amounts in serum tissue
immunoglobulin E (IgE)
The immunoglobulin is concentrated in the lungs, the skin, and the cells of mucous membranes
immunoglobulin G (IgG)
A specialized protein synthesized in response to invasion
immunoglobulin M (IgM)
The first immunoglobulin the body produces when challenged by antigens and is found in circulating fluids
The antibodies made by plasma cells
The study of all aspects of the immune system including its structure and function, disorders of the immune system, blood banking, immunization and organ transplantation.
The body's first line of defense against invading organisms because it acts as a physical barrier to prevent their entry into the body
A group of proteins having antiviral activity and capable of enhancing and modifying the immune response.
Glycoproteins secreted by a variety of leukocytes which have effects on other leukocytes.
A spatial configuration of the combining site of an anti-idiotype antibody which resembles the epitope to which the idiotype is directed.
A segment of DNA that does not code for protein
A tissue transplanted between two genetically identical individuals.
Antibodies to major red blood cell antigens present normally as a result of inapparent immunization by cross-reactive antigens in bacteria, food, etc.
A biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of antibody from one class to another.
Classes of antibody that differ in the constant region of their heavy chain (Fc portion)
A gene segment coding for the J or joining segment in immunoglobulin DNA
joining chain (j chain)
A polypeptide involved in the polymerization of immunoglobulin molecules IgM and IgA.
An effector lymphocyte with Fc receptors which allow it to bind to and kill antibody-coated target cells.
killer T cell
A T cell with a particular immune specificity and an endogenously produced receptor for antigen, capable of specifically killing its target cell after attachment to the target cell by this receptor. Also called cytotoxic T cell.
The specialized lymph vessels located in the small intestine
light chain (L chain)
The light chain of immunoglobulin is a structural feature that occurs in two forms: kappa and lambda.
The tonsils which are located at the base of the tongue
The frequency, in a population of linked genes, which is governed by factors other than change.
lymph fluid/intercellular/interstitial fluid
The clear and colorless fluid which transports nutrients to and removes waste from tissues, and circulates immune cells.
Small bean shaped structures that house B cells and T cells of the immune system.
The vessels which transports lymph fluid through tissues and returns it into venous blood.
The thin-walled tubes that carry lymph from the tissue spaces to the larger lymphatic vessels
Small cell with virtually no cytoplasm, found in blood, in all tissue, and in lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and Peyer's patches, and bears antigen-specific receptors.
Soluble substances secreted by lymphocytes, which have a variety of effects on lymphocytes and other cell types.
The destruction of cell by penetrating the cell wall, allowing fluid to fill the cell and causing the cell to rupture
A large phagocytic cell of the mononuclear series found within tissues.
macrophage-activating factor (MAF)
Actually several lymphokines, including interferon, released by activated T cells, which together induce activation of macrophages, making them more efficient in phagocytosis and cytotoxicity.
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
A cluster of genes on chromosome 6 in humans, encoding cell surface molecules that are polymorphic and that code for antigens which lead to rapid graft rejection between members of a single species which differ at these loci. Several classes of protein such as MHC class I and II proteins are encoded in this region. These in humans, are known as 'Human leukocyte antigens' (HLA).
Tissue located cell probably derived from basophils.
In the immune system, memory denotes an active state of immunity to a specific antigen, such that a second encounter with that antigen leads to a larger and more rapid response.
memory T cell
Cells which remembers the specific antigen and stimulates a faster and more intense response if the same antigen is introduced another time
MHC class I module
A molecule encoded to genes of the MHC which participates in antigen presentation to cytotoxic T (CD8+) cells.
MHC class II module
A molecule encoded by genes of the MHC which participates in antigen presentation to helper T (CD4+) cells.
The fact that a given T cell will recognize a peptide antigen only when it is bound to a host body's own MHC molecule.
migration inhibition factor (MIF)
A lymphokine that inhibits the motility of macrophages in culture.
minor histocompatibility antigens
These antigens, encoded outside the MHC, are numerous, but do not generate rapid graft rejection or primary responses of T cells in vitro. They do not serve as restricting elements in cell interactions.
A substance that stimulates the proliferation of many different clones of lymphocytes.
mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR)
When lymphocytes from two individuals are cultured together, a proliferative response is generally observed, as the result of reactions of T cells of one individual to MHC antigens on the other individual's cells.
Monoclonal cells are defined as a group of cells produced from a single ancestral cell by repeated cellular replication.
Monocytes are a type of white blood cell and are part of the innate immune system which plays multiple roles in immune function.
Soluble substances secreted by monocytes, which have a variety of effects on other cells.
NK cell/natural killer cell
Cells capable of mediating cytotoxic reactions without themselves being specifically sensitized against the target.
A null cell is a large granular lymphocyte without surface markers or membrane- associated proteins from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes.
An opsonin is any molecule that targets an antigen for an immune response.
The process by which bacteria are altered by opsonins so as to become more readily and more efficiently engulfed by phagocytes.
The tonsils which located in the oropharynx and are visible through the mouth
The site on the antibody molecule that attaches to an antigen.
The entire physical, biochemical, and physiological makeup of an individual as determined both genetically and environmentally.
A mechanism by which cells ingest extracellular fluid and its contents.
Spherical or ellipsoidal cells with a single nucleus containing chromatin.
A substance that induces activation of many individual clones of either T or B cells. See Mitogen.
The state or quality of existing or occurring in several different forms.
A white blood cell containing a segmented lobular nucleus; an eosinophil, basophil, or neutrophil
primary lymphoid organs
Organs in which the maturation of T and B lymphocytes take place and antigen-specific receptors are first acquired.
The response that the immune system displays when first exposed to an antigen
The antibody that mediates immediate hypersensitivity reactions
The rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells.
It is also a first line of defense
The reticuloendothelial system (RES) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue.
Rheumatoid factor (RF or RhF) is an autoantibody (antibody directed against an organism's own tissues) most relevant in rheumatoid arthritis.
second set rejection
Accelerated rejection of an allograft in an already immune recipient.
secondary lymphoid organs
A source of effector lymphocytes, such as the spleen, lymph nodes, or tonsils.
A polypeptide synthesized by epithelial cells that binds to IgA to form secretory IgA (SIgA).
slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A)
A mixture of the leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4. Mast cells secrete it during the anaphylactic reaction, inducing inflammation. It can be found in basophils.
A saclike mass of lymphatic tissue located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen just below the diaphragm and behind the stomach
A mechanism for producing a specific state of immunologic unresponsiveness by the induction of suppressor T cells. This type of unresponsiveness is passively transferable by suppressor T cells or their soluble products.
suppressor T cell
Cells which stops B cell activity when this activity no longer needed
T cells/T lymphocytes
The small and circulating lymphocytes produced in the bone marrow.
T-dependent antigen one that requires the presence of helper T cells to stimulate antibody production by B cells; most antigens are T-dependent.
The hormone secreted by he thymus
The thymus located above the heart and it composed largely of lymphatic tissue and it plays important role both in the body's immunologic and endocrine systems
An antigen that can trigger B lymphocytes to produce antibodies without the participation of T lymphocytes. See also T-dependent antigen.
tonsils and adenoids (nasopharyngeal tonsils)
Masses of lymphatic tissue that form a protective ring around the nose and upper throat
Immunology Disease Related Terms
A rare, chronic endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce sufficient steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids).
An inflammation of the adenoids
An allergen is any substance that can cause an allergy.
An allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system.
anaphylaxis/ systemic reaction
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening type of allergic reaction.
An infection caused by a fungus of the genus Aspergillus
Atopy or atopic syndrome is a predisposition toward developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions.
The disorder in which the body makes antibodies and T cells directed against itself and attacks its own tissues
Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism in recognizing its own constituent parts as non self, which allows an immune response against its own cells and tissues.
An infection caused by a species of the fungus
Transmitter of disease
cellular response/localized or delayed response
The reaction of the body first time when it is exposed to the potential allergen
Crohn's disease/ regional enteritis
A form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
A form of meningitis caused by fungus
An infection caused by a group of large herpes type viruses with a wide variety of disease effects
Wakened or loss of strength
A group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.[
An autoimmune disease where the thyroid is overactive, producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones
A swelling (inflammation) of the thyroid gland that often results in reduced thyroid function (hypothyroidism).
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
A hybrid cell that results from the fusion of an antibody-secreting cell with a malignant cell
Immunodeficiency disorder/immune deficiency disease
A condition that occurs when one or more parts of the immune system is deficient or missing.
A malignant, multifocal neoplasm characterized by vascular skin tumors that may spread in the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and viscera (internal organs)
An inflammation of the lymph nodes
A disease process affecting the lymph nodes
A benign abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels forming a mass
A disorder caused by Epstein Barr virus which is marked by the presence of an abnormally large number of atypical lymphocytes
An autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).
A neuromuscular disorder which involve the muscles and the nerves that control them.
A tumor of plasma cells, generally secreting a single species of immunoglobulin.
An infection caused by the bacterium Nocardia asteroides
An infection that normally does not cause disease but is able to cause illness in a debilitated host whose resistance has been decreased by a different disorder
peritonsillar abscess/Quinsy sore throat
An infection of the tissue between the tonsil and pharynx
persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL)
The continued presence of diffuse enlargement of lymph nodes
The engulfing of microorganisms or other cells and foreign particles by phagocytes
A form of pneumonia caused by an infection with the parasite
A common skin condition that causes skin redness and irritation.
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
A long-term disease that leads to inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissues
A connective tissue disease that involves changes in the skin, blood vessels, muscles, and internal organs
Lacking antibodies of a specific type serum
Serum sickness is a type of delayed allergic response, appearing four to 10 days after exposure to some antibiotics or antiserum
An enlargement of the spleen
The bleeding from the spleen
systemic lupus erythematous
An autoimmune disorder that affects many body systems including joints, connective tissue, skin, and major organs throughout the body
Diminished or absent capacity to make a specific response to an antigen, usually produced because of contact with that antigen under non-immunizing conditions.
An inflammation of the tonsils
A modified or inactivated exotoxin that has lost toxicity but retains the ability to combine with, or stimulate the production of, antitoxin.
An infection with the protozoan parasite
Inability to respond to antigenic stimulus.
Treatment Related Terms of Immunology
The transplant of an organ or tissue from one individual to another of the same species with a different genotype
A drug that blocks the growth of neoplasms and is used to treat cancer
Tissue transplanted from one part of the body to another in the same individual.
clonal selection theory
There are several million clones of antibody-producing cells in each adult, each programmed to make an antibody of a single specificity and carrying cell-surface receptors for specific antigens; exposure to antigen induces cells with receptors for that antigen to proliferate and produce large quantities of specific antibody.
Coombs' test/antiglobulin test/AGT
A clinical blood test
A hormonal preparation used primarily as an anti-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant
The drug that kills or damages cells. It is used as an antineoplastic and as an immunosuppressant
direct Coombs' test (DCT)/ direct antiglobulin test (DAT)
A test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia
A blood test to used to detect the presence of HIV antibodies
Freund's adjuvant is a solution of antigen emulsified in mineral oil and used as an immunopotentiator (booster). The complete form, Freund's Complete Adjuvant,(CFA or FCA) is composed of inactivated and dried mycobacteria (usually M. tuberculosis), whereas the incomplete form (IFA or FIA) lacks the mycobacterial components (hence just the water in oil emulsion).
A drug that prevent or reduces the body's normal reactions to invasion by disease or by foreign tissues. They are used to prevent the rejection of donor tissue
The administration of agents that significantly interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to antigenic stimulation
A treatment of allergic responses in which increasingly large doses of the offending allergens are administered to gradually develop immunity
indirect Coombs test/ indirect antiglobulin test (IAT)
The indirect Coombs test identifies antibodies to red blood cells. This test is used to help screen for suspected ABO incompatibility reaction. It is also used when an Rh incompatibility reaction in pregnant women is suspected.
Treatment that provides immunity through the transfer of antibodies obtained from an immune individual.
A prophylaxis is a measure taken to maintain health and prevent the spread of disease.
radioallergosorbent test (RAST)
A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detecting IgE antibody specific for a particular allergen.
A highly sensitive and specific assay method that uses the competition between radiolabeled and unlabeled substances in an antigen-antibody reaction to determine the concentration of the unlabeled substance, which may be an antibody or a substance against which specific antibodies can be produced.
A diagnostic test to identify commonly troublesome allergens such as tree pollen and ragweed.
The surgical removal of spleen
To suture the spleen
Genetically identical or closely related, so as to allow tissue transplant; immunologically compatible.
A graft between genetically identical individuals, typically between identical twins
The reciprocal of the last dilution of a titration giving a measurable effect.
The use of vaccines to prevent specific diseases.
A blood test used to diagnose HIV. It is most frequently used to confirm seropositive ELISA results
Infectious Disease Medical Terms
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
A disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.
An infectious bacterial disease caused by Actinomyces species such as Actinomyces israelii
African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis)
A parasitic disease of people and animals
Carried by air
An infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica
A type of dysentery caused primarily by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica
A disease caused by a rickettsial parasite of ruminants, Anaplasma spp
Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis
A general term for drugs, chemicals, or other substances that either kill or slow the growth of microbes
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum pharyngitis
Inflammation of pharynx caused by Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum infection
Infection caused by Arcanobacterium haemolyticum.
Argentine hemorrhagic fever
Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) or O'Higgins disease, stubble disease, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. It is caused by the Junín virus.
A disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides
The name given to a wide variety of diseases caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus
Infections caused by Astrovirus
A malaria-like parasitic disease caused by infection with Babesia, a genus of protozoal piroplasms
Bacillus cereus infection
Infection caused by Bacillus cereus
A large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV)
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) or less commonly vaginal bacteriosis is a disease of the vagina caused by bacteria.
Infection caused by bacillus bacteria
A protozoan infection caused by infection with Balantidium coli
Infection caused by Baylisascaris
BK virus infection
Infection caused by BK virus
Blastocystis hominis infection
Infection caused by Blastocystis hominis
A fungal infection caused by the organism Blastomyces dermatitidis.
A blood-borne disease is one that can be spread through contamination by blood.
Bolivian hemorrhagic fever
Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Ordog Fever, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease originating in Bolivia after infection by Machupo virus
A species of Gram negative bacteria
Infection caused by Borrelia
Botulism also known as botulinus intoxication is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by botulinum toxin which is metabolic waste produced under anaerobic conditions by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, and affecting a wide range of mammals, birds and fish.
Brazilian hemorrhagic fever
Brazilian hemorrhagic fever (BzHF) is an infectious disease caused by the Sabiá virus, an Arenavirus.
Brucellosis, also called Bang's disease, Crimean fever, Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever, or undulant fever, is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilized milk or meat from infected animals or close contact with their secretions.
Infection caused by Burkholderia.
An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans
Infection caused by Calivirus
An infection by the Campylobacter bacterium.
A genus of yeasts
Candidiasis (Moniliasis; Thrush)
A fungal infection caused by any candida species.
Transmitter of disease
A benign infectious disease caused by the intracellular bacterium Bartonella.
Inflammation of tissues beneath the skin.
Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)
A tropical parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi.
A sexually transmitted infection characterized by painful sores on the genitalia
A highly infectious viral disease, especially affecting children, characterized by a rash of small itching blisters on the skin and mild fever.
A sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
A long-term fungal infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
Clonorchiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.
Clostridium difficile infection
Infection caused by Clostridium difficile
A fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis
Colorado tick fever (CTF)
An obtuse viral infection transmitted from the bite of an infected tick.
Common cold (Acute viral rhinopharyngitis; Acute coryza)
A viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system which affects primarily the nose.
Existing at birth
Transmitted from one person to another either by direct contact with the person or by indirect contact
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
CJD is a degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is incurable and invariably fatal. It is also called human form of mad cow disease.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF)
A widespread tick-borne viral disease
A potentially fatal fungal disease
A parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa
Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM)
CLM is a skin disease in humans, caused by the larvae of various nematode parasites of the hookworm family
Cyclosporiasis is an infection with the protozoan Cyclospora cayetanensis, a pathogen transmitted by feces or feces-contaminated fresh produce and water.
The disease is spread via the fecal-oral route through contaminated food and water, and is primarily a food borne disease.
Infection spread through Cytomegalovirus
A viral inflammation of the retina of the eye.
Dengue fever also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus
A medical condition caused by infection with Dientamoeba fragilis
a serious infectious disease, caused by a bacterium, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, that attacks the membranes of the throat and releases a toxin that damages the heart and the nervous system.
The infection caused by the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium
Also called guinea worm disease (GWD), is a parasitic infection caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a long and very thin nematode (roundworm).
Transmission of an infection through the projection of oral and nasal secretions by coughing, sneezing, or talking.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever
Ebola virus disease (EVD) (or more commonly, Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF)) is the name for the human disease which may be caused by any of the five known ebolaviruses
Echinococcosis, which is often referred to as hydatid disease or echinococcal disease, is a parasitic disease.
Ehrlichiosis is a tickborne bacterial infection.
Inflammation of the thin membranous lining endocardium of the heart's cavities.
Enterobiasis (Pinworm infection)
A pinworm infection or enterobiasis is a human parasitic disease and one of the most common childhood parasitic worm infections in the developed world.
Infection caused by enterococcus
Infection caused by enterovirus
It is a form of typhus (typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Rickettsiae) so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters.
The scientific and medical study of the causes and transmission of disease within a population
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
Also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family and is one of the most common viruses in humans.
Epstein-Barr Virus Infection
Infection caused by Epstein-Barr Virus
An infectious, widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).
A type of skin infection (cellulitis).
Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease)
One of several possible manifestations of infection by erythrovirus, previously called parvovirus B19.
Exanthema subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease (as the sixth rash-causing childhood disease) and (confusingly) baby measles, or three-day fever, is a disease of children, generally under two years old
A parasitic disease caused by parasite named Fasciolopsis buski.
A disease caused by parasite named Fasciola hepatica(the common liver fluke) and Fasciola gigantica
Fatal familial insomnia (FFI)
A very rare autosomal dominant inherited infectious disease of the brain.
A parasitic disease and is considered an infectious tropical disease, that is caused by thread-like nematodes (roundworms) belonging to the superfamily Filarioidea.
A fomite is any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms (such as germs or parasites) and hence transferring them from one individual to another.
Food poisoning by Clostridium perfringens
Food poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens
Free-living amebic infection
A member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds
A infection caused by Fusobacterium
Gas gangrene (Clostridial myonecrosis)
A bacterial infection that produces gas tissues in gangrene.
Soft, wart-like growths on the skin and mucus membranes of the genitals in men and women
A fungal infection caused by Geotrichum candidum
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS)
A very rare, usually familial, fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects patients from 20 to 60 years in age.
Giardiasis or beaver fever in humans is a diarrheal infection of the small intestine by a single-celled organism Giardia lamblia
An infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys.
The human infection by the nematode (roundworm) Gnathostoma spinigerum and/or Gnathostoma hispidum
A common sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol.
Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining.
Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis)
A bacterial disease caused by K. granulomatis characterized by ulcerative genital lesions.
Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS)
A streptococcal infection
Infection caused by Group A streptococcal bacteria
Group B streptococcal infection
Infection caused by Group B streptococcal bacteria
Haemophilus influenzae infection
Infection caused by Haemophilus influenzae
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD)
A human syndrome caused by intestinal viruses of the Picornaviridae family.
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)
A life-threatening disease spread to humans by rodents that has symptoms similar to influenza.
Helicobacter pylori infection
Infection caused by Helicobacter pylori
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)
A disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure (uremia) and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia).
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
A life-threatening disease spread to humans by rodents that has symptoms similar to influenza.
Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis A virus.
Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV).
Hepatitis C is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis C virus.
Hepatitis D is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis D virus.
Hepatitis E is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis E virus.
Herpes simplex virus
There are 2 type of Herpes simplex virus. HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both HSV-1 (which produces most cold sores) and HSV-2 (which produces most genital herpes) are exists everywhere and contagious.
A disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus)
A virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Infection caused by hookworm.
An organism harboring another organism on or in itself
Human bocavirus infection
An Infection caused by human bocavirus
Human ewingii ehrlichiosis
An infectious disease caused by an intracellular bacteria, Ehrlichia ewingii
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA)
An infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human metapneumovirus infection
Infection caused by Human metapneumovirus
Human monocytic ehrlichiosis
A tickborne bacterial infection
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
An infection caused by human papillomavirus
Human parainfluenza virus infection
An infection caused by human parainfluenza virus
An infestation by one of two species of tapeworm
A contagious infection of the skin caused by staphylococcal and streptococcal bacteria and characterized by blisters that form yellow-brown scabs.
Infectious diseases, also known as communicable diseases, contagious diseases or transmissible diseases comprise clinically evident illness (i.e., characteristic medical signs and/or symptoms of disease) resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism.
Infectious mononucleosis (IM)
An infectious, widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).
An infectious disease caused by the influenza viruses.
Interferons (IFNs) are proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens—such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites—or tumor cells.
A human intestinal disease caused by the parasite Isospora belli.
Kawasaki disease (KD), also known as Kawasaki syndrome, lymph node syndrome and mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is an autoimmune disease in which the medium-sized blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed.
The inflammation and swelling of the cornea
Kingella kingae infection
An infection caused by Kingella kingae
Kuru is an incurable degenerative neurological disorder that is a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.
Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.
Legionellosis (Legionnaires disease)
Legionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by gram negative, aerobic bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella.
Legionellosis (Pontiac fever)
A potentially fatal infectious disease caused by gram negative, aerobic bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella.
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania.
Leprosy or Hansen's disease (HD) is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Leptospirosis is caused by infection with bacteria of the genus Leptospira.
Listeriosis is a bacterial infection caused by a Gram-positive, motile bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes
Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis)
An infectious bacterial disease transmitted by ticks, in which skin rash, fever, and headache precede arthritis and nervous disorder.
Lymphatic filariasis (Elephantiasis)
Filariasis is a parasitic disease and is considered an infectious tropical disease, that is caused by thread-like nematodes (roundworms) belonging to the superfamily Filarioidea, also known as "filariae".
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by eukaryotic protists of the genus Plasmodium.
Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF)
A diverse group of animal and human illnesses that are caused by four distinct families of RNA viruses.
Measles, also known as rubeola or morbilli, is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus.
Melioidosis (Whitmore's disease)
Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water.
Meningitis is inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Meningococcal disease describes infections caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also termed meningococcus).
Metagonimiasis is a disease caused by an intestinal trematode.
Microbial flora refers to the microorganisms that live in gastrointestinal tract.
An opportunistic intestinal infection that causes diarrhea which is caused by microsporidia parasites.
Molluscum contagiosum (MC)
A viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes.
A viral disease of the human species, caused by the mumps virus.
Murine typhus (Endemic typhus)
A form of typhus transmitted by fleas.
A fungal disease
A form of bacterial pneumonia that is caused by the bacteria species Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
A general term for pathological infection by parasitic fly larvae feeding on the host's living tissue.
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF)
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease or Flesh-eating bacteria syndrome, is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue.
Neonatal conjunctivitis (Ophthalmia neonatorum)
Neonatal conjunctivitis, also known as ophthalmia neonatorum, is a form of bacterial conjunctivitis contracted by newborns during delivery.
Nocardiosis is an infectious disease affecting either the lungs (pulmonary nocardiosis) or the whole body (systemic nocardiosis).
Onchocerciasis (River blindness)
A parasitic disease caused by infection by Onchocerca volvulus, a nematode (roundworm).
Paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis)
A fungal infection caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
A food-borne parasitic infection caused by the lung fluke, most commonly Paragonimus westermani
A plant or animal that lives on or in another, usually larger, host organism in a way that harms or is of no advantage to the host.
An infection with a species of the bacteria genus Pasteurella.
A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host.
Pediculosis capitis (Head lice)
A human medical condition caused by the colonization of the hair and skin by the parasitic insect Pediculus humanus capitis—the head louse.
Pediculosis corporis (Body lice)
A cutaneous condition caused by body lice (specifically Pediculus corporis) that lay their eggs in the seams of clothing.
Pediculosis pubis (Pubic lice, Crab lice)
A disease caused by the crab louse Phthirus pubis, a parasitic insect notorious for infesting human pubic hair.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
A generic term for inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs.
Period of communicability
The period of time when the infectious agent that causes a communicable disease may be transmitted to a susceptible host.
Pertussis (Whooping cough)
A highly contagious bacterial disease caused by Bordetella pertussi.
Pinworm is an intestinal infection caused by tiny parasitic worms.
A deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. Primarily carried by rodents (most notably rats) and spread to humans via fleas.
Infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
A lung infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
A form of pneumonia, caused by the yeast-like fungus (which had previously been erroneously classified as a protozoan) Pneumocystis jiroveci.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung especially affecting the microscopic air sacs (alveoli)—associated with fever, chest symptoms, and a lack of air space (consolidation) on a chest X-ray. Pneumonia is typically caused by an infection but there are a number of other causes. Infectious agents include: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
An acute, viral, infectious disease spread from person to person, primarily via the fecal-oral route.
Infection caused by Prevotella
A disease of the central nervous system caused by infection from Naegleria fowleri
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
A rare and usually fatal viral disease that is characterized by progressive damage (pathy) or inflammation of the white matter (leuko) of the brain (encephalo) at multiple locations (multifocal).
Any measure taken to prevent health problems.
Psittacosis also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Chlamydophila psittaci
Pubic lice are small, six-legged creatures that infect the pubic hair area and lay eggs.
The yellowish or greenish fluid that forms at sites of infection, consisting of dead white blood cells, dead tissue, bacteria, and blood serum.
A disease caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii.
A viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
A general, nonspecific term that describes any visible skin outbreak.
An acute fever caused by bacteria transmitted by rodents.
Respiratory syncytial virus infection
An infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus
A sudden (acute) brain damage (encephalopathy) and liver function problems of unknown cause.
An infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi.
An Infection caused by rhinovirus
An infection caused by bacteria of the Rickettsia
An illness caused by bacteria of the Rickettsia
Rift Valley fever (RVF)
An infectious disease that causes fever.
A fungal disease of the skin, scalp, or nails in which intensely itchy ring-shaped patches develop.
Rocky mountain spotted fever (RMSF)
The most lethal and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States.
Infection caused by Rotavirus
Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus
An infection with Salmonella bacteria.
SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
A respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus
A contagious skin infection
A contagious bacterial infection marked by fever, a sore throat, and a red rash, mainly affecting children.
A parasitic disease caused by several species of trematodes
A potentially deadly medical condition that is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state and the presence of a known or suspected infection.
A disease caused by toxic microorganisms in the bloodstream.
Sexually transmitted diseases
Sexually transmitted disease (STD), also known as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex.
Shigellosis (Bacillary dysentery)
Dysentery caused by bacteria named shigella.
Shingles (herpes zoster)
Shingles (herpes zoster) is a painful, blistering skin rash due to the varicella-zoster virus, the virus that causes chickenpox
An infectious disease caused by two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor
One type of gram-negative bacteria.
A disease caused by the infection of the fungus Sporothrix schenckii
Staphylococcal food poisoning
Food poisoning caused by staphylococcal bacteria.
A infection caused by staphylococcal bacteria.
A type of bacteria
Streptococcal disease is caused by a bacteria known as group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus
Streptococcal pharyngitis or strep throat
An acute sore throat caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes and accompanied by fever and inflammation.
A human parasitic disease caused by the nematode (roundworm)
A sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium
Taeniasis is a form of tapeworm infection which is caused by tapeworms of the genius Taenia.
A medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers
A fungal infection of the mouth characterized by white patches.
A small wingless bloodsucking insect that lives on the skin of humans and warm-blooded animals and may transmit diseases. Families: Argasidae, Ixodidae.
Tinea barbae (Barber's itch)
A fungal infection of the hair.
Tinea capitis (Ringworm of the Scalp)
A superficial fungal infection (dermatophytosis) of the scalp.
Tinea corporis (Ringworm of the Body)
A superficial fungal infection (dermatophytosis) of the arms and legs, especially on glabrous skin, however it may occur on any part of the body.
Tinea cruris (Jock itch)
A dermatophyte fungal infection of the groin region in either sex, though more often seen in males.
Tinea manuum (Ringworm of the Hand)
A fungal infection of the hand.
A superficial fungal infection that causes dark brown to black painless patches on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
Tinea pedis (Athlete’s foot)
A fungal infection of the skin that causes scaling, flaking, and itch of affected areas
Tinea unguium (Onychomycosis)
A fungal infection of the nail
Tinea versicolor (Pityriasis versicolor)
A condition characterized by a rash on the trunk and proximal extremities.
Toxic shock syndrome
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a potentially fatal illness caused by a bacterial toxin.
A poison produced by a living organism.
Toxocariasis (Ocular Larva Migrans (OLM)
An illness of humans caused by a larvae (immature worms) of either the dog roundworm (Toxocara canis) or the cat roundworm (Toxocara cati).
Toxocariasis (Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM)
An illness of humans caused by a larvae (immature worms) of either the dog roundworm (Toxocara canis) or the cat roundworm (Toxocara cati).
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii.
Able to be transmitted
Also called trichinosis or trichiniasis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork.
A common cause of vaginitis caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis
Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as "trich", is a common cause of vaginitis.
Trichuriasis (Whipworm infection)
A parasitic infection primarily in the tissue of the cecum, appendix, colon and rectum that is caused by Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), an intestinal parasitic nematode (roundworm).
Tropical diseases are diseases that are unique to tropical and subtropical regions.
A common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Tularemia (also known as Pahvant Valley plague rabbit fever, deer fly fever, and Ohara's fever) is a serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis
Tzanck test, also Tzanck smear, is scraping of an ulcer base to look for Tzanck cells. It is sometimes also called the Chickenpox skin test and the herpes skin test.
Ureaplasma urealyticum infection
Infection caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum
Inflammation of vagina
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is one of eight herpes viruses known to infect humans. It commonly causes chicken-pox in children and Herpes zoster (shingles) in adults and rarely in children.
Disease transmitting organism
Venezuelan equine encephalitis
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis or encephalomyelitis (VEE).
Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever
An infectious human illness.
A pneumonia caused by a virus
A submicroscopic parasite
West Nile Fever
A virus of the family Flaviviridae
White piedra (Tinea Blanca)
A mycosis of the hair
Small single celled fungus
An acute viral hemorrhagic disease
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection
Infection caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Yersiniosis is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Yersinia
Same as shingles
Zygomycosis is the broadest term to refer to infections caused by bread mold fungi of the Zygomycota phylum.
Neurological Anatomical Terms
abducens cranial nerve(VI) - The sixth cranial nerve is a somatic efferent nerve that controls the movement of movement of a single muscle, the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, in humans.
accessory cranial nerve (XI) - The 11th of the 12 cranial nerves which controls specific muscles of the shoulder and neck.
autonomic nervous system (ANS) - The autonomic nervous system (ANS or visceral nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness, and controls visceral functions
brain - The controlling center of the nervous system in vertebrates, connected to the spinal cord and enclosed in the cranium.
brain stem - The posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord
central nervous system - The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies
Cerebellum - Rear part of the brain
cerebral cortex - Outer layer of front of brain
cerebral hemisphere - Either of the two symmetrical halves of the brain cerebrum
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - A clear, colorless, bodily fluid, that occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum - Front of brain, it is where activities including reasoning, learning, sensory perception, and emotional responses take place.
congenital - Existing at birth
cranial nerves - Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, in contrast to spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord
facial cranial nerve(VII) - The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. It emerges from the brainstem between the pons and the medulla, and controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and oral cavity.
frontal lobe - The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of humans and other mammals, located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere and positioned anterior to (in front of) the parietal lobe and superior and anterior to the temporal lobes
glossopharyngeal cranial nerve(IX) - The ninth (IX) of twelve pairs of cranial nerves, the motor division of the glossopharyngeal nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic medulla oblongata, while the sensory division originates from the cranial neural crest.
gray matter - A major component of the central nervous systemwhich is made up of neuronal cell bodies and which regions of the brain involved in muscle control, sensory perception such as seeing and hearing, memory, emotions, and speech.
Gyri (plural of gyrus) - A convolution, especially of the brain.
hypoglossal cranial nerve(XII) - The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII), leading to the tongue.
hypothalamus - A central area on the underside of the brain, controlling involuntary functions such as body temperature and the release of hormones
medulla oblongata - Lower part of the brain
meninges - Protective spine and brain membranes
motor nerves - These are the nerves which are supplied from the brain to the muscles and the glands to perform a function, they are used in contracting and relaxing the muscles to perform certain specified functions.
nerve - Fiber bundle transmitting impulses
neurologist - A physician who specializes in neurology
neurology - A study of nervous system
neurosurgeon - A surgeon who specializes in operating on the brain, head, neck, and spinal cord.
occipital lobe - The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex.
oculomotor cranial nerve(III) - The oculomotor nerve is the 3rd of 12 paired cranial nerves and controls most of the eye's movements.
olfactory bulb - The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors.
olfactory cranial nerve(I) - The first of twelve cranial nerves. It is instrumental in the sense of smell.
olfactory tract - The olfactory tract is a bundle of axons connecting the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb to several target regions in the brain.
optic cranial nerve (II) - The cranial nerve 2, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
optic tract - The optic tract is a part of the visual system in the brain.
parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) - The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
parietal lobe - The parietal lobe is a part of the brain positioned above (superior to) the occipital lobe and behind (posterior to) the frontal lobe
peripheral nervous system (PNS) - The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs.
sensory nerves - Sensory nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system which includes the cranial and spinal nerves.
spinal cord - Inner part of the spine containing nerves
spinal nerves - Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves originate from the spinal cord
sulci - A depression or fissure in the surface of the brain.
sympathetic nervous system (SNS) - One of the three parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric and parasympathetic systems
temporal lobe - Part of the brain controlling hearing, memory, and speech.
thalamus (diencephalon) - The thalamus is a large, dual lobed mass of grey matter buried under the cerebral cortex. It is involved in sensory perception and regulation of motor functions.
trigeminal cranial nerve(V) - The fifth cranial nerve contains both sensory and motor fibers. It is responsible for sensation in the face and certain motor functions such as biting, chewing, and swallowing.
trochlear cranial nerve(IV) - The fourth cranial nerve is a motor nerve (a “somatic efferent” nerve) that innervates a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye.
vagus cranial nerve (X) - The tenth cranial nerve which supplies nerve fibers to the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), lungs, heart, esophagus and most of the intestinal tract (as far as the transverse portion of the colon). And the vagus nerve brings sensory information back from the ear, tongue, pharynx and larynx.
ventricles - The ventricles of the brain are a communicating network of cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and located within the brain.
vestibulocochlear cranial nerve (VIII) - The eighth of twelve cranial nerves and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain.
white matter - White matter is one of the two components of the central nervous system and consists mostly of glial cells and myelinated axons that transmit signals from one region of the cerebrum to another and between the cerebrum and lower brain centers
Neurological Disease Related Terms
abdominal seizures -Abdominal epilepsy, sometimes referred to as autonomic seizures, is a very rare form of seizure which presents with the acute onset of symptoms seemingly related to the gastrointestinal system.
abscess - An abscess is a collection of pus in any part of the body that, in most cases, causes swelling and inflammation around it.
adult hydrocephalus - Adult hydrocephalus is hydrocephalus which occurs in an adult patient.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/ Lou Gehrig's disease - Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a disease of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control voluntary muscle movement.
Aneurysm - An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel.
aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage - A subarachnoid hemorrhage is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. This may occur spontaneously, usually from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, or may result from head injury.
aqueductal stenosis - Aqueductal stenosis is a common cause of obstructive hydrocephalus.
Arnold Chiari malformation - Arnold–Chiari malformation, or often simply Chiari malformation, is a malformation of the brain.
arteriovenous fistulas - An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein.
arteriovenous malformation (AVM) - Arteriovenous malformation or AVM is an abnormal connection between veins and arteries, usually congenital.
astrocytoma - A malignant brain tumor made up of star-shaped cells astrocytes.
bacterial meningitis - Bacterial meningitis refers to meningitis that is caused by bacterial infection.
brain ischemia/cerebral ischemia - A condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand
brain tumor - A brain tumor, or tumour, is an intracranial solid neoplasm, a tumor (defined as an abnormal growth of cells) within the brain or the central spinal canal.
cavernous malformation - The well-defined, grossly visible lesions that may reach a significant size. They are composed of a compact mass of sinusoidal-type vessels immediately in apposition to each other without any recognizable intervening neural parenchyma.
cerebral aneurysm - A cerebral or brain aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel.
cerebral contusion - A bruise of the brain tissue.
cerebral ischemia or cerebral infarction -The reduction or loss of oxygen to the cerebrum
Cerebritis - An inflammation of the cerebrum
cerebrovascular disease/stroke - A stroke happens when blood flow to a part of the brain stops.
cervical herniated disc - A herniated disc in the neck can cause neck pain, arm pain, and numbness or weakness.
cervical spinal stenosis - Cervical spinal stenosis is a bone disease involving the narrowing of the spinal canal at the level of the neck.
Chiari malformation - A herniation of the brain into the spinal canal.
cluster headache - A cluster headache is one-sided head pain that may involve tearing of the eyes and a stuffy nose.
complex partial seizure - A complex partial seizure is an epileptic seizure that is associated with bilateral cerebral hemisphere involvement and causes impairment of awareness or responsiveness, i.e. loss of consciousness.
Concussion - An injury to the brain, often resulting from a blow to the head, that can cause temporary disorientation, memory loss, or unconsciousness
congenital hydrocephalus - Increased fluid around the brain existing at birth
cortical dysplasia - Cortical dysplasia is a malformation of the cortex of the brain which can lead to pediatric epilepsy.
cystic astrocytoma - A neoplasm of the brain that occurs more often in children and young adults
degenerative spinal disease Degenerative spine disease is a general term that refers to any disease of the spinal column that results from the aging process and wear and tear that occurs to the bone and soft tissues of the spine.
Diastematomyelia - Diastematomyelia is a rare congenital anomaly that results in the "splitting" of the spinal cord in a longitudinal (sagittal) direction.
diffuse axonal injury - Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common and devastating types of traumatic brain injury, meaning that damage occurs over a more widespread area than in focal brain injury.
Encephalitis - Inflammation of brain
Encephalocele/ cranium bifidum - A neural tube defect characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it through openings in the skull.
epidural hematoma - A type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a buildup of blood occurs between the dura mater (the tough outer membrane of the central nervous system) and the skull.
Epilepsy - Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures (convulsions) over time.
extra-axial tumors - Extra-axial tumors most commonly arise from the meninges, calvarium, or skull base
febrile seizures - A febrile seizure is a convulsion in a child triggered by a fever.
Fissures - A break or tear in the skin
foraminal stenosis - A narrowing of the spinal foramen, the hole through which passes a spinal nerve as it exits the spine
fungal meningitis - A meningitis caused by a fungal infection
ganglioglioma - Ganglioglioma is a tumour that arises from ganglion cells in the central nervous system.
generalized seizure - A form of epilepsy characterized by generalized seizures with no apparent cause
grand mal or tonic clonic seizures -A seizure which features a loss of consciousness and violent muscle contractions.
Hematoma - A localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, usually in liquid form within the tissue
hemimegalencephaly - A rare hamartomatous malformation of the brain, remarkable for its extreme asymmetry
Hemorrhage - The loss of blood from a ruptured blood vessel, either internally or externally
herniated disc - Due to rupture of the spinal disc a portion of the spinal disc pushes outside its normal boundary this is called a herniated disc.
herpes encephalitis - Herpes encephalitis is a form of viral encephalitis caused specifically by a herpes virus.
Hydrocephalus - A buildup of fluid inside the skull that leads to brain swelling.
hypertensive hemorrhage - Bleeding within the brain of adjacent structures which results from systemic hypertension, usually in association with intracranial arteriosclerosis.
infantile spasms - The term "infantile spasms" can be used to describe the specific seizure manifestation in the syndrome, but is also used as a synonym for the syndrome itself.
Infarction - Tissue death (necrosis)
infiltrative - Relating to or characterized by infiltration
intra-axial tumor - A brain tumor
Intracranial - Within or introduced into the skull
intracranial pressure (ICP) - The pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) - Bleeding within brain parenchyma
Lesion - A wound, especially an area of skin that is broken or infected
Lou Gehrig's disease/ amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - A disease of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control voluntary muscle movement
lumbar herniated disc - A lumbar herniated disc causes an irritation of the spinal nerve root in the lower back which prompts lower back pain or sciatica symptoms such as leg pain.
lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) - A medical condition in which the spinal canal narrows and compresses the spinal cord and nerves at the level of the lumbar vertebra
lymphoma - Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphocytes, a type of cell that forms part of the immune system.
Mass - Lump
Medulloblastoma - Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant primary brain tumor that originates in the cerebellum or posterior fossa.
meningitis - Inflammation of meninges
Meningocele - Protrusion of meninges through skull
migraine headache - A migraine is a common type of headache that may occur with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light.
moyamoya disease - A disease in which certain arteries in the brain are constricted
multiple sclerosis (MS) - Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).
Myelomeningocele - Myelomeningocele is a birth defect in which the backbone and spinal canal do not close before birth.
nervous system infections - Infections of nervous system
Neurofibromatosis/ von Recklinghausen disease - A genetically-inherited disorder in which the nerve tissue grows tumors (neurofibromas) that may be benign or may cause serious damage by compressing nerves and other tissues.
normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH)/ symptomatic hydrocephalus - A clinical symptom complex characterized by abnormal gait, urinary incontinence, and dementia.
oligodendroglioma - Oligodendrogliomas are a type of glioma that are believed to originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain or from a glial precursor cell.
Parkinson's disease - Parkinson's disease is a disorder of the brain that leads to shaking (tremors) and difficulty with walking, movement, and coordination.
partial seizures/ focal seizures/ localized seizures - Seizures which affect only a part of the brain at onset.
pediatric (congenital) hydrocephalus - An abnormality of the normal flow of fluid in and around the brain which is present from the time of birth.
pediatric and infant seizures -
petit mal or absence - Absence seizures are brief (usually less than 20 seconds), generalized epileptic seizures of sudden onset and termination.
polycystic kidney disease - Polycystic kidney disease is a kidney disorder passed down through families in which many cysts form in the kidneys, causing them to become enlarged.
post-traumatic seizures - Post-traumatic seizures (PTS) are seizures that result rom traumatic brain injury ( TBI), brain damage caused by physical trauma.
primary generalized - seizures which start as a generalized seizure, involving the whole brain.
pseudomotor cerebri - Pseudotumor cerebri occurs when the pressure inside your skull (intracranial pressure) increases for no obvious reason
Rasmussen's encephalitis/ chronic focal encephalitis (CFE) - A rare inflammatory neurological disorder, characterized by frequent and severe seizures, loss of motor skills and speech, hemiparesis (paralysis on one side of the body), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and dementia.
Sciatica - A pain and tenderness extending from the back of the hip down to the calf, usually caused by a protrusion of vertebral disk substance pressing on the roots of the sciatic nerve
secondary generalization - A partial seizure may spread within the brain—a process known as secondary generalization.
seizure - A seizure is the physical findings or changes in behavior that occur after an episode of abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
simple partial seizure - Simple partial seizures are seizures which affect only a small region of the brain, often the temporal lobes and/or hippocampi.
spasm - Involuntary muscle contraction
spina bifida occulta - Spina Bifida Occulta refers to a group of conditions involving the spinal column.
spina bifida/ myelomeningocele - A birth defect in which the backbone and spinal canal do not close before birth.
spinal cord trauma - Spinal cord trauma is damage to the spinal cord
spinal dermal sinus -
spinal dysraphism - A general name for several types of congenital malformations of the spine.
spinal instability - The loss of the spinal soft tissues
spinal lipoma - Fat accumulations within the spine
spinal meningitis - inflammation and swelling within the lining of the brain and spinal cord.
spinal stenosis - A narrowing of the spinal column that causes pressure on the spinal cord
spinal tumors - A spinal tumor is a growth of cells (mass) in or surrounding the spinal cord.
status epilepticus (SE) - A life-threatening condition in which the brain is in a state of persistent seizure.
stroke/brain attack - A stroke happens when blood flow to a part of the brain stops
Sturge-weber syndrome - A rare disorder that is present at birth. A child with this condition will have a port-wine stain birthmark (usually on the face) and nervous system problems.
subarachnoid hemorrhage - The bleeding in the area between the brain and the thin tissues that cover the brain
subdural empyema/abscess - An intracranial focal collection of purulent material located between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
subdural hematoma - A subdural hematoma is a collection of blood on the surface of the brain.
syringomyelia - Syringomyelia is damage to the spinal cord due to the formation of a fluid-filled area within the cord.
Tay-Sachs disease - Tay-Sachs disease is a deadly disease of the nervous system passed down through families.
telangiectasias - Telangiectasias are typically small (0.3-1.0 cm) lesions composed of capillary type vessels separated from each other by more or less normal-appearing neural parenchyma
temporal lobe epilepsies - The temporal lobe is the most epileptic region of the brain.
tension headache - A tension headache is pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck, usually associated with muscle tightness in these areas.
thoracic herniated disc - A herniated disc occurs when the intervertebral disc's outer fibers (the annulus) are damaged and the soft inner material of the nucleus pulposus ruptures out of its normal space.
tight filum terminale syndrome - Tight filum terminale syndrome is caused by incomplete involution of the distal spinal cord during embryogenesis.
Todd's paralysis/Todd's paresis - A focal weakness in a part of the body after a seizure.
transient ischemic attack (TIA) - A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a brief period of time.
traumatic brain injury (TBI)/ intracranial injury - Traumatic brain injury happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain.
traumatic coma - A traumatic coma is a decrease in the level of consciousness due to a traumatic injury to the head.
traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage - The prognosis of head trauma is thought to be influenced in part by the location and amount of subarachnoid bleeding.
tuberous sclerosis -Tuberous sclerosis is a group of two genetic disorders that affect the skin, brain/nervous system, kidneys, and heart, and cause tumors to grow.
tumor - An abnormal growth of body tissue
tumor-associated hydrocephalus -Tumor-associated non-communicating hydrocephalus is a form of obstructive hydrocephalus which is caused by a brain tumor.
type I malformation
type I neurofibromatosis
type II malformation
type II neurofibromatosis
type III malformation
viral encephalitis - Viral encephalitis refers to a type of encephalitis caused by a virus.
viral meningitis - Viral meningitis refers to a type of meningitis caused by a virus.
Von Hippel Lindau syndrome - Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is an inherited multi-system disorder characterized by abnormal growth of blood vessels.
Neurological Treatment Related Terms
aneurysm clipping - Aneurysm clipping is a surgical procedure performed to treat a balloon-like bulge of an artery wall known as an aneurysm.
aneurysm coiling - Aneurysm coiling is a minimally invasive procedure performed to treat an aneurysm, a balloon like bulge of an artery wall.
anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) - Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a surgical procedure to treat nerve root or spinal cord compression by decompressing the spinal cord and nerve roots of the cervical spine in order to stabilize the corresponding vertebrae.
Burr hole - A burr hole for subdural hematoma is performed to remove a hemorrhage (blood clot) from around the surface of the brain.
cerebral angiogram - Cerebral angiography is a form of angiography which provides images of blood vessels in and around the brain.
Chiari decompression - A Chiari decompression is a specific type of craniotomy designed to make more room for the herniated cerebellum, and to relieve pressure on the brain.
Computed axial tomography (CAT scan) - a procedure that assists in diagnosing tumors, fractures, bony structures, and infections in the organs
craniotomy - A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.
CT scan - Computed tomographic scan
decompression - Decrease in pressure
Electroencephalogram (EEG) - The recording of electrical activity along the scalp.
Electromyogram (EMG) - EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph, to produce a record called an electromyogram
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) - A surgical procedure in which an opening is created in the floor of the third ventricle using an endoscope placed within the ventricular system through a burr hole.
epilepsy surgery -
foraminotomy - A medical operation used to relieve pressure on nerves that are being compressed by the intervertebral foramina
Glasgow coma scale - A neurological scale that aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment
Glasgow outcome scale - A neurological scale which is used in research to quantify the level of recovery patients have achieved
laminectomy - Laminectomy is a spine operation to remove the portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina.
lumbar discectomy - Lumbar discectomy is a surgical procedure to remove part of a problem disc in the low back.
lumbar puncture (spinal tap) (LP) - A diagnostic and at times therapeutic procedure that is performed in order to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - A medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structures.
microdiscectomy (lumbar decompression back surgery) - A microdiscectomy is typically performed in response to a lumbar herniated disc. The surgery consists of removing small portions of bone and/or disc material to relieve neural impingement.
nerve conduction study (NCS) - A nerve conduction study (NCS) is a test commonly used to evaluate the function, especially the ability of electrical conduction, of the motor and sensory nerves of the human body.
spinal fusion/ spondylodesis/ spondylosyndesis - A surgical technique used to join two or more vertebrae.
ventriculoperitoneal shunting - A surgery to relieve increased pressure inside the skull due to excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the brain (hydrocephalus).
ventriculostomy (external ventricular drain) - Ventriculostomy is a neurosurgical procedure that involves creating a hole (" ostomy") within a cerebral ventricle for drainage.